Dictionary of Law
Founded: 308
parol evidence rule :: n. if there is evidence in writing (such as a sign ... or contradict the written document.
best evidence rule :: n. the legal doctrine that an original piece of ev ... ence in a trial. See also: evidence
parol :: adj. oral. See also: parol evidence rule ... oral. See also: parol evidence rule
evidence :: n. every type of proof legally presented at trial ... material object objection relevant
exclusionary rule :: n. the rule that evidence secured by illegal means ... e poisonous tree motion to suppress
admissible evidence :: n. evidence which the trial judge finds is useful ... olving violence. See also: evidence
McNabb-Mallory rule :: n. a federal rule of evidence in criminal trials t ... present. See also: Miranda warning
preponderance of the evidence :: n. the greater weight of the evidence required in ... what subjective. See also: evidence
suppression of evidence :: n. 1) a judge's determination not to allow evidenc ... the prosecutor. See also: evidence
turn states' evidence :: v. for a person accused of a crime to decide to gi ... recommendation of a light sentence.
tainted evidence :: n. in a criminal trial, information which has been ... e search and seizure search warrant
overrule :: v. 1) to reject an attorney's objection to a quest ... : appellate court objection sustain
circumstantial evidence :: n. evidence in a trial which is not directly from ... circumstantial. See also: evidence
demonstrative evidence :: n. actual objects, pictures, models and other devi ... the trial judge. See also: evidence
incontrovertible evidence :: n. evidence introduced to prove a fact in a trial ... erson is not the parent of a child.
incompetent evidence :: n. testimony, documents or things which one side a ... ns. See also: incompetent objection
documentary evidence :: n. any document (paper) which is presented and all ... evancy. See also: document evidence
insufficient evidence :: n. a finding (decision) by a trial judge or an app ... l court. See also: evidence finding
direct evidence :: n. real, tangible or clear evidence of a fact, hap ... o: circumstantial evidence evidence
corroborating evidence :: n. evidence which strengthens, adds to, or confirm ... confirms already existing evidence.
clear and convincing evidence :: n. evidence that proves a matter by the "preponder ... See also: beyond a reasonable doubt
parole :: n. 1) the release of a convicted criminal defendan ... sed he will not take up arms again.
rules of court :: n. a set of procedural regulations adopted by cour ... s counsel. See also: procedure rule
admission of evidence :: n. a judge's acceptance of evidence in a trial. Se ... ence in a trial. See also: evidence
weight of evidence :: n. the strength, value and believability of eviden ... dence preponderance of the evidence
rule against perpetuities :: n. the legal prohibition against tying up property ... . See also: restraint on alienation
rule :: 1) v. to decide a legal question, by a court, as i ... ee also: regulations rules of court
M'Naughten rule :: n. a traditional "right and wrong" test of legal i ... temporary insanity Twinkie defense
prudent man rule :: n. the requirement that a trustee, investment mana ... (1994). See also: fiduciary trustee
home rule :: n. the power of a local city or county to set up i ... state funds for local improvements.
hearsay rule :: n. the basic rule that testimony or documents whic ... interest dying declaration hearsay
after-discovered evidence :: n. evidence found by a losing party after a trial ... also: evidence writ of coram nobis
mail box rule :: n. in contract law, making a written offer or acce ... nse in hand when the time runs out.
inference :: n. a rule of logic applied to evidence in a trial, ... . See also: circumstantial evidence
but for rule :: n. one of several tests to determine if a defendan ... e damage. See also: proximate cause
expert witness :: n. a person who is a specialist in a subject, ofte ... sitions. See also: expert testimony
irrelevant :: adj. not important, pertinent, or germane to the m ... ce immaterial incompetent objection
indictable offense :: n. a crime (offense) for which a Grand Jury rules ... o commit them. See also: indictment
Good Samaritan rule :: n. from a Biblical story, if a volunteer comes to ... a lawsuit for millions of dollars.
incompetent :: adj. 1) referring to a person who is not able to m ... n incompetency incompetent evidence
last antecedent rule :: n. a doctrine of interpretation (construction) of ... o trucks and not boats or tractors.
dram shop rule :: n. a statute (Dram Shop Act) or case law in 38 sta ... tervening cause, namely, the drunk.
hearsay :: n. 1) second-hand evidence in which the witness is ... t or gossip. See also: hearsay rule
harmless error :: n. an error by a judge in the conduct of a trial w ... ar to be harmless." See also: error
material :: adj. relevant and significant. In a lawsuit, "mate ... contract is not a material breach.
presumption :: n. a rule of law which permits a court to assume a ... resumption at all, but a certainty.
plain view doctrine :: n. the rule that a law enforcement officer may mak ... : search and seizure search warrant
retroactive :: adj. referring to a court's decision or a statute ... ospective." See also: ex post facto
search warrant :: n. a written order by a judge which permits a law ... ble cause search search and seizure
spontaneous exclamation :: n. a sudden statement caused by the speaker having ... et hit the girl." See also: hearsay
objection :: n. a lawyer's protest about the legal propriety of ... ng question object overrule sustain
motion to strike :: n. a request for a judge's order to eliminate all ... be unrung." See also: motion strike
malicious prosecution :: n. filing a lawsuit with the intention of creating ... vor of the victim. See also: malice
marked for identification :: adj. documents or objects presented during a trial ... exhibit lay a foundation objection
motion for dismissal :: (non-suit) n. application by a defendant in a laws ... otion for nonsuit. See also: motion
motion in limine :: (lim-in-nay) n. Latin for "threshold," a motion ma ... o: in limine Miranda warning motion
jurisdiction :: n. the authority given by law to a court to try ca ... Superior Court Supreme Court venue
right of way :: n. 1) a pathway or road with a specific descriptio ... s easement egress floating easement
life without possibility of parole :: n. a sentence sometimes given for particularly vic ... or may someday reduce the sentence.
bifurcation :: n. the act of a judge in dividing issues before a ... on the other issue. (See bifurcate
bifurcate :: v. the order or ruling of a judge that one issue i ... is necessary. See also: bifurcation
insanity :: n. mental illness of such a severe nature that a p ... M'Naughten rule temporary insanity
contributory negligence :: n. a doctrine of common law that if a person was i ... : comparative negligence negligence
contra :: adj. Latin for "against" or "opposite to". This us ... he rule stated in Keeler v. Beach."
court :: n. 1) the judge, as in "The court rules in favor o ... cost and wait of full court trials.
covenant :: 1) n. a promise in a written contract or a deed of ... o compete deed restrictive covenant
covenants, conditions and restrictions :: n. commonly called "CC and Rs," these are written ... ctive purchaser. See also: covenant
civil procedure :: n. the complex and often confusing body of rules a ... l civil action civil code civil law
court-martial :: 1) n. a military court for trying offenses in viol ... the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.
continuing objection :: n. an objection to certain questions or testimony ... ional distress. See also: objection
comparative negligence :: n. a rule of law applied in accident cases to dete ... utory negligence damages negligence
Code of Professional Responsibility :: n. a set of rules governing the ethical conduct of ... de has been adopted by most states.
concurrent sentences :: n. sentences for more than one crime which are to ... ith the longest period controlling.
construe :: v. to determine the meaning of the words of a writ ... s normal, widely accepted meanings.
date rape :: n. forcible sexual intercourse by a male acquainta ... physical resistance. See also: rape
continuance :: n. a postponement of a date of a trial, hearing or ... continuances to discourage delays.
clean hands doctrine :: n. a rule of law that a person coming to court wit ... ices. See also: affirmative defense
diminished capacity :: n. essentially a psychological term which has foun ... See also: insanity M'Naughten rule
fair comment :: n. a statement of opinion (no matter how ludicrous ... amation libel public figure slander
ex post facto :: adj. Latin for "after the fact," which refers to l ... ted before the new law was adopted.
family purpose doctrine :: n. a rule of law that the registered owner of an a ... riving his/her car with permission.
felony murder doctrine :: n. a rule of criminal statutes that any death whic ... arged with murder. See also: murder
attorney's work product :: n. written materials, charts, notes of conversatio ... ivileged communication work product
governmental immunity :: n. the doctrine from English common law that no go ... o: Federal Tort Claims Act immunity
ex parte :: (ex par-tay, but popularly, ex party) adj. Latin m ... and place of any ex parte hearing.
et seq. :: (et seek) n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et ... Vehicle Code Section 1204, et seq."
distinguish :: v. to argue that the rule in one appeals court dec ... arity (i.e. it is "distinguished").
case system :: n. the method of studying law generally used in Am ... Langdell and soon became standard.
divorce :: 1) n. the termination of a marriage by legal actio ... y separate property spousal support
equal protection of the law :: n. the right of all persons to have the same acces ... laws." See also: due process of law
equity :: n. 1) a venerable group of rights and procedures t ... ry enjoin equitable injunction writ
descent :: n. the rules of inheritance established by law in ... on inheritance intestate succession
capital gains :: n. the difference between the sales price and the ... so: basis delayed exchange exchange
abortion :: n. the termination of pregnancy by various means, ... ed abortion continue in the future.
work product :: n. the writings, notes, memoranda, reports on conv ... ies to be employed by the attorney.
act :: 1) n. in general, any action by a person. 2) n. a ... ct on your motion for a new trial."
administrative law :: n. the procedures created by administrative agenci ... judge Administrative Procedure Act
admiralty :: n. concerning activities which occur at sea, inclu ... "proctors." See also: maritime law
Administrative Procedure Act :: n. the federal act which established the rules and ... strative hearing administrative law
witness :: 1) n. a person who testifies under oath in a trial ... lso: deposition evidence trial will
whiplash :: n. a common neck and/or back injury suffered in au ... r damages due to negligent driving.
unreasonable search and seizure :: n. search of an individual or his/her premises (in ... e probable cause search and seizure
undue influence :: n. the amount of pressure which one uses to force ... ounder. See also: will will contest
verdict :: n. the decision of a jury after a trial, which mus ... nt quotient verdict special verdict
warrant :: 1) n. an order (writ) of a court which directs a l ... e search and seizure search warrant
bad debt :: n. an uncollectible debt. The problem is to determ ... ust no income on which to be taxed.
adverse party :: n. the opposite side in a lawsuit. Sometimes when ... the court rules the will was legal.
agency :: n. the relationship of a person (called the agent) ... ondeat superior scope of employment
brief :: 1) n. a written legal argument, usually in a forma ... another person. See also: precedent
bar association :: n. an organization of lawyers. There are two types ... oluntary organization of attorneys.
bylaws :: n. the written rules for conduct of a corporation, ... d/or amended. See also: corporation
canon law :: n. laws and regulations over ecclesiastical (churc ... nduct with no religious connection.
caption :: n. the first section of any written legal pleading ... to the exact format of the caption.
heir :: n. one who acquires property upon the death of ano ... y pretermitted heir succession will
attractive nuisance doctrine :: n. a legal doctrine which makes a person negligent ... ch make negligence harder to prove.
attorney's advertising :: n. the commercials which appear on television or c ... es to handle high volume practices.
appearance :: n. the act of a party or an attorney showing up in ... neral appearance special appearance
answer :: n. in law, a written pleading filed by a defendant ... emurrer general denial verification
arbitration :: n. a mini-trial, which may be for a lawsuit ready ... tance of the arbitrator's decision.
association :: n. any group of people who have joined together fo ... ed, although technically redundant.
attachment :: n. the seizing of money or property prior to getti ... bond. See also: writ of attachment
case :: n. short for a cause of action, lawsuit, or the ri ... ny, the court stated the rule as:."
appeal :: 1) v. to ask a higher court to reverse the decisio ... ng, as in "he has filed an appeal."
rejection of claim :: n. in probate law (administration of an estate of ... stion of administrative remedies").
regulations :: n. rules and administrative codes issued by govern ... es usually have similar procedures.
rescue doctrine :: n. the rule of law that if a rescuer of a person h ... to the car grill. See also: damages
restraint on alienation :: n. an attempt in a deed or will to prevent the sal ... enant rule against perpetuities use
abuse of discretion :: n. a polite way of saying a trial judge has made s ... partner's realistic ability to pay.
revenue ruling :: n. a published opinion of the Internal Revenue Ser ... evenue ruling. See also: income tax
recoverable :: adj. referring to the amount of money to which a p ... ehicle." See also: damages judgment
rape :: 1) n. the crime of sexual intercourse (with actual ... See also: date rape statutory rape
admission of guilt :: n. a statement by someone accused of a crime that ... ssion guilty Miranda warning rights
proper party :: n. a person or entity who has an interest (financi ... lf. See also: necessary party party
public domain :: n. 1) in copyright law, the right of anyone to use ... al governments. See also: copyright
question of fact :: n. in a lawsuit or criminal prosecution, an issue ... also: finding judge question of law
race to the courthouse :: n. slang for the rule that the first deed, deed of ... e also: deed judgment lien mortgage
quorum :: n. the number of people required to be present bef ... ly set by statute. See also: bylaws
three strikes, you're out :: n. recent (beginning 1994) legislation enacted in ... ich involve small amounts of money.
sanction :: n. 1) a financial penalty imposed by a judge on a ... ction." See also: contempt of court
timely :: adj. within the time required by statute, court ru ... ed on the 61st day is not "timely."
temporary injunction :: n. a court order prohibiting an action by a party ... ry injunction. See also: injunction
wiretap :: n. using an electronic device to listen in on tele ... invasion of privacy probable cause
special circumstances :: n. in criminal cases, particularly homicides, acti ... urant. See also: capital punishment
habeas corpus :: (hay-bee-us core-puss) n. Latin for "you have the ... nality of a state court conviction.
probation :: n. a chance to remain free (or serve only a short ... See also: attorney-client privilege
sustain :: v. in trial practice, for a judge to agree that an ... /she will "overrule" the objection.
surrebutal :: n. in written or oral legal argument, the response ... h until the judge stops the debate.
stare decisis :: : (stah-ree duh-sigh-sis) n. Latin for "to stand b ... pellate court lower court precedent
shortening time :: n. an order of the court in response to the motion ... e notice is served within 24 hours.
status conference :: n. a pre-trial meeting of attorneys before a judge ... g a trial date. See also: discovery
substantive law :: n. law which establishes principles and creates an ... are conducted. See also: procedure
succession :: n. the statutory rules of inheritance of a dead pe ... istribution." See also: inheritance
procedure :: n. the methods and mechanics of the legal process. ... cases are tried and judgments made.
primogeniture :: n. from Latin for "first born," the ancient rule f ... oes not exist in the United States.
last clear chance :: n. a rule of law in determining responsibility for ... contributory negligence negligence
judicial discretion :: n. the power of the judge to make decisions on som ... iscretion beyond his/her authority.
law :: n. 1) any system of regulations to govern the cond ... um maritime law natural law statute
legal advertising :: n. 1) notices of probate sales and other documents ... quality of the lawyers advertising.
liberty :: n. freedom from restraint and the power to follow ... the benefit of the general public.
libel :: 1) n. to publish in print (including pictures), wr ... libel per se public figure slander
judge :: 1) n. an official with the authority and responsib ... ice justice of the peace magistrate
Jones Act :: n., adj. a federal law which covers injuries to cr ... ." See also: admiralty maritime law
in pari delicto :: adv. (in pah-ree dee-lick-toe) Latin for "in equal ... e proof is that both were involved.
ultimate fact :: n. in a trial, a conclusion of fact which is logic ... is not evidence. See also: evidence
in terrorem clause :: (in tehr-roar-em)n. from Latin for "in fear," a pr ... e gift. See also: will will contest
integration :: n. 1) adopting a writing as part of an agreement, ... , as well as racial mix in schools.
joint tortfeasors :: n. two or more persons whose negligence in a singl ... : comparative negligence negligence
interrogation :: n. questioning of a suspect or witness by law enfo ... the poisonous tree Miranda warning
lower court :: n. 1) any court of lesser rank, such as municipal ... ruled Defendant had no basis for:."
adverse possession :: n. a means to acquire title to land through obviou ... o: possession prescriptive easement
perpetuity :: n. forever. See also: in perpetuity rule against p ... erpetuity rule against perpetuities
officious intermeddler :: n. a volunteer who assists and/or benefits another ... efit. See also: Good Samaritan rule
pleading :: n. 1) every legal document filed in a lawsuit, pet ... nswer complaint demurrer plea plead
possession :: n. 1) any article, object, asset or property which ... ctive possession. See also: possess
preemption :: n. the rule of law that if the federal government ... cs control may parallel each other.
precedent :: 1) n. a prior reported opinion of an appeals court ... to perform. See also: stare decisis
official :: 1) adj. referring to an act, document or anything ... tion or business. See also: officer
negligence :: n. failure to exercise the care toward others whic ... gence per se res ipsa loquitur tort
maxims :: n. a collection of legal truisms which are used as ... e and the ordinary habits of life."
martial law :: n. a system of complete control by a country's mil ... n and women. See also: military law
meet and confer :: n. a requirement of courts that before certain typ ... s which are freighted with emotion.
Miranda warning :: n. the requirement, also called the Miranda rule, ... me such a suspect? See also: rights
admit :: v. 1) to state something is true in answering a co ... tted." See also: admission evidence
held :: v. decided or ruled, as "the court held that the c ... See also: decision judgment ruling
true bill :: n. the written decision of a Grand Jury (signed by ... to the court. See also: indictment
confidential communication :: n. certain written communications which can be kep ... privilege privileged communication
contempt of court :: n. there are essentially two types of contempt: a) ... roduce evidence. See also: sanction
matter of record :: n. anything, including testimony, evidence, ruling ... cussions not written down or taped.
conclusion of fact :: n. in a trial, the final result of an analysis of ... quested. See also: finding judgment
conclusion :: n. 1) in general, the end. 2) in a trial, when all ... onclusion of fact conclusion of law
moral certainty :: n. in a criminal trial, the reasonable belief (but ... : beyond a reasonable doubt verdict
corroborate :: v. to confirm and sometimes add substantiating (re ... l. See also: corroborating evidence
magistrate :: n. 1) a generic term for any judge of a court, or ... ce of the peace preliminary hearing
criminal justice :: n. a generic term for the procedure by which crimi ... endered and punishment carried out.
judicial notice :: n. the authority of a judge to accept as facts cer ... elts in the sun. See also: evidence
jury stress :: n. a form of mental, emotional, psychological, phy ... do the right thing. See also: jury
jury tampering :: n. the crime of attempting to influence a jury thr ... e also: jury subornation of perjury
liability :: n. one of the most significant words in the field ... bility joint tortfeasors negligence
lay a foundation :: v. in evidence, to provide to the judge the qualif ... ce and training. See also: evidence
competent :: adj. 1) in general, able to act in the circumstanc ... all bases. See also: evidence will
commutation :: n. the act of reducing a criminal sentence resulti ... See also: executive clemency pardon
on the merits :: adj. referring to a judgment, decision or ruling o ... s if this mistake had not occurred.
offer of proof :: n. an explanation made by an attorney to a judge d ... rial irrelevant objection testimony
open court :: n. the conduct of judicial proceedings (trials, he ... which are usually held in chambers.
opening statement :: n. the explanation by the attorneys for both sides ... rgument. See also: closing argument
overt act :: n. in criminal law, an action which might be innoc ... terrorist bombing of that building.
comment :: n. a statement made by a judge or an attorney duri ... e rung, cannot be unrung," applies.
obstruction of justice :: n. an attempt to interfere with the administration ... n arrest. Such activity is a crime.
community property :: n. property and profits received by a husband and ... and distribution separate property
motive :: n. in criminal investigation the probable reason a ... is not necessary to prove a crime.
motion to suppress :: n. a motion (usually on behalf of a criminal defen ... eshold." See also: motion in limine
muniment of title :: n. documentary evidence of title to real property. ... also: deed quiet title action title
nolle prosequi :: (no-lay pro-say-kwee) n. Latin for "we shall no lo ... nocent and declared nolle prosequi.
non-suit :: n. a ruling by the judge in a lawsuit either when ... the defendant. See also: dismissal
joint tenancy :: n. a crucial relationship in the ownership of real ... ty property tenancy in common title
dismiss :: v. the ruling by a judge that all or a portion (on ... nst that party. See also: dismissal
fruit of the poisonous tree :: n. in criminal law, the doctrine that evidence dis ... property. See also: Miranda warning
fraud :: n. the intentional use of deceit, a trick or some ... audulent conveyance intrinsic fraud
Grand Jury :: n. a jury in each county or federal court district ... arge indictment preliminary hearing
examination :: n. 1) the questioning of a witness by an attorney. ... irect examination testimony witness
enjoin :: v. for a court to order that someone either do a s ... so: injunction temporary injunction
hearing :: n. any proceeding before a judge or other magistra ... e hearing preliminary hearing trial
four corners of an instrument :: n. the term for studying an entire document to und ... solve an ambiguity in its language.
foreclosure :: n. the system by which a party who has loaned mone ... ced sale mortgage notice of default
exception :: n. 1) a formal objection during trial ("We take ex ... cluded. See also: exception in deed
exhibit :: n. 1) a document or object (including a photograph ... ncorporated into the main document.
extrajudicial :: adj. referring to actions outside the judicial (co ... gnized by the judge during a trial.
extreme cruelty :: n. an archaic requirement to show infliction of ph ... ring the suffering spouse (victim).
fact :: n. an actual thing or happening, which must be pro ... dge if he/she sits without a jury).
extrinsic fraud :: n. fraudulent acts which keep a person from obtain ... it. See also: fraud intrinsic fraud
immaterial :: adj. a commonly heard objection to introducing evi ... ons. See also: irrelevant objection
impeach :: v. 1) to discredit the testimony of a witness by p ... ve been found guilty by the Senate.
DNA :: n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromo ... is strongly in favor of admission.
indictment :: n. a charge of a felony (serious crime) voted by a ... ictable offense preliminary hearing
information :: n. an accusation or criminal charge brought by the ... Jury indictment preliminary hearing
inspection of documents :: n. the right to examine and copy the opposing part ... evidence subpena duces tecum trial
District Attorney (D.A.) :: n. an elected official of a county or a designated ... dent and serve at his/her pleasure.
instruction :: n. an explanation of the law governing a case whic ... fore the jury begins deliberations.
document :: n. a popular generic word among lawyers for any pa ... it. See also: documentary evidence
indicia :: n. (in-dish-yah) from Latin for "signs," circumsta ... . See also: circumstantial evidence
in limine :: (in lim-in-ay) from Latin for "at the threshold," ... otion. See also: motion to suppress
impound :: v. 1) to collect funds, in addition to installment ... cases. See also: forfeit forfeiture
enclosure :: (inclosure)n. land bounded by a fence, wall, hedge ... oundaries and cause legal problems.
election of remedies :: n. an outmoded requirement that if a plaintiff (pa ... dence has not been fully presented.
double jeopardy :: n. placing someone on trial a second time for an o ... that occurred thirty years earlier.
paternity suit :: n. a lawsuit, usually by a mother, to prove that a ... d to a prompt and quiet settlement.
color of title :: n. the appearance of having title to personal or r ... rty based on this "color of title."
seized :: (seised) n. 1) having ownership, commonly used in ... by force. See also: seisin seizure
securities :: n. generic term for shares of stock, bonds and deb ... ee also: bond debenture share stock
seizure :: n. the taking by law enforcement officers of poten ... e search and seizure search warrant
self-incrimination :: n. making statements or producing evidence which t ... nda warning rights taking the Fifth
sequester :: v. to keep separate or apart. In so-called "high-p ... of others. See also: sequestration
self-serving :: adj. referring to a question asked of a party to a ... ng declaration. See also: objection
burden of proof :: n. the requirement that the plaintiff (the party b ... ence prima facie weight of evidence
search and seizure :: n. examination of a person's premises (residence, ... robable cause search search warrant
back-to-back life sentences :: n. slang for consecutive life terms imposed by a j ... ther 25 years for a parole hearing.
reversal :: n. the decision of a court of appeal ruling that t ... e of damages is ordered to dismiss.
rights :: n. 1) plural of right, which is the collection of ... evidence. See also: Miranda warning
roadside test :: n. a preliminary test law enforcement officers use ... g while intoxicated Miranda warning
search :: v. 1) to examine another's premises (including a v ... e search and seizure search warrant
scintilla :: n. Latin for "spark." Scintilla is commonly used i ... ark) upon which to base a judgment.
shifting the burden of proof :: n. the result of the plaintiff in a lawsuit meetin ... o: burden of proof prima facie case
speaking demurrer :: n. an attempt to introduce evidence during a heari ... the operation." See also: demurrer
testify :: v. to give oral evidence under oath in answer to q ... deposition evidence testimony trial
temporary insanity :: n. in a criminal prosecution, a defense by the acc ... diminished capacity insanity intent
testimony :: n. oral evidence given under oath by a witness in ... tion evidence testify trial witness
title :: n. 1) ownership of real property or personal prope ... ink slip real property title search
exculpatory :: adj. applied to evidence which may justify or excu ... t guilty or has no criminal intent.
trial :: n. the examination of facts and law presided over ... at a hearing held at a later time.
survivorship :: n. the right to receive full title or ownership du ... onvenience. See also: joint tenancy
summary adjudication of issues :: n. a court order ruling that certain factual issue ... is made. See also: summary judgment
bond :: n. 1) written evidence of debt issued by a company ... good up to the amount of the bond.
special damages :: n. damages claimed and/or awarded in a lawsuit whi ... . See also: damages general damages
stop and frisk :: n. a law enforcement officer's search for a weapon ... h search and seizure search warrant
submitted :: n. the conclusion of all evidence and argument in ... , no further argument is permitted.
subpena duces tecum :: : (suh-pea-nah dooh-chess-take-uhm or dooh-kess-ta ... ng a court order. See also: witness
business invitee :: n. a person entering commercial premises for the p ... to the contrary. See also: invitee
retrial :: n. a new trial granted upon the motion of the losi ... al or reversed by an appeals court.
probative facts :: n. evidence which tends to prove something which i ... See also: probative probative value
probative :: adj. in evidence law, tending to prove something. ... so: probative facts probative value
probative value :: n. evidence which is sufficiently useful to prove ... prior actions. See also: probative
process :: n. in law, the legal means by which a person is re ... service of process subpena summons
proof :: n. confirmation of a fact by evidence. In a trial, ... doubt preponderance of the evidence
proffer :: v. to offer evidence in a trial. ... v. to offer evidence in a trial.
probable cause :: n. sufficient reason based upon known facts to bel ... of Rights search search and seizure
prior(s) :: n. slang for a criminal defendant's previous recor ... es for the third felony conviction.
code :: n. a collection of written laws gathered together, ... utes or laws. See also: law statute
preliminary hearing :: n. in criminal law, a hearing to determine if a pe ... nment charge Grand Jury information
presentment :: n. 1) making a demand for payment of a promissory ... ee also: Grand Jury promissory note
closing argument :: n. the final argument by an attorney on behalf of ... . See also: opening statement trial
prime suspect :: n. the one person law enforcement officers believe ... in trial. See also: Miranda warning
prima facie :: : (pry-mah fay-shah) adj. Latin for "at first look ... t" case. See also: prima facie case
property damage :: n. injury to real or personal property through ano ... l value. See also: damages property
prove :: v. to present evidence and/or logic that makes a f ... t or criminal case. See also: proof
renewal :: n. keeping an existing arrangement in force for an ... ction which evidences the new term.
remote :: adj., adv. extremely far off or slight. Evidence m ... ee also: immaterial proximate cause
rental value :: n. the amount which would be paid for rental of si ... alimony to be paid. See also: rent
renunciation :: n. 1) giving up a right, such as a right of inheri ... renunciation is factually too late.
res ipsa loquitur :: (rayz ip-sah loh-quit-her) n. Latin for "the thing ... plex doctrine. See also: negligence
reprieve :: n. a temporary delay in imposition of the death pe ... commutation of sentence or pardon.
relevant :: adj. having some reasonable connection with, and i ... nt." See also: irrelevant objection
rehearing :: n. conducting a hearing again based on the motion ... the judge or agency was just wrong.
reasonable doubt :: n. not being sure of a criminal defendant's guilt ... also: preponderance of the evidence
public record :: n. any information, minutes, files, accounts or ot ... l judgment are both public records.
rebuttal :: n. evidence introduced to counter, disprove or con ... tion, or responsive legal argument.
record :: 1) v. (ree-cored) to put a document into the offic ... eeding race to the courthouse trial
referee :: n. a person to whom a judge refers a case to take ... on such findings. See also: master
beyond a reasonable doubt :: adj. part of jury instructions in all criminal tri ... on moral certainty reasonable doubt