Dictionary of Law
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Founded: 1677
search :: v. 1) to examine another's premises (including a v ... e search and seizure search warrant
warrant :: 1) n. an order (writ) of a court which directs a l ... e search and seizure search warrant
title search :: n. the examination of county records for the prope ... e escrow lien title title insurance
stop and frisk :: n. a law enforcement officer's search for a weapon ... h search and seizure search warrant
seizure :: n. the taking by law enforcement officers of poten ... e search and seizure search warrant
tainted evidence :: n. in a criminal trial, information which has been ... e search and seizure search warrant
probable cause :: n. sufficient reason based upon known facts to bel ... of Rights search search and seizure
Bill of Rights :: n. the first ten amendments to the federal Constit ... ved to the states or to the people.
plain view doctrine :: n. the rule that a law enforcement officer may mak ... : search and seizure search warrant
frisk :: v. quickly patting down the clothes of a possible ... k women and men officers frisk men.
warranty :: n. a written statement of good quality of merchand ... of the contract. See also: warrant
implied warranty :: n. an assumption at law that products are "merchan ... er. See also: caveat emptor implied
constitutional rights :: n. rights given or reserved to the people by the U ... e also: Bill of Rights constitution
exclusionary rule :: n. the rule that evidence secured by illegal means ... e poisonous tree motion to suppress
warranty deed :: n. a deed to real property which guarantees that t ... : grant deed quitclaim deed warrant
savings and loan :: n. a banking and lending institution, chartered ei ... vings into the home finance market.
bait and switch :: n. a dishonest sales practice in which a business ... rants the costs of a separate suit.
title insurance :: n. a policy issued by an insurance company guarant ... : chain of title title title search
bench warrant :: n. a warrant issued by a judge, often to command s ... appear in court. See also: warrant
arrest warrant :: n. a judge's order to law enforcement officers to ... ommitted a crime. See also: warrant
breach of warranty :: n. determination that a statement as to title of p ... See also: implied warranty warranty
and :: conj. this little word is important in law, partic ... ds "or," but not if it reads "and."
information and belief :: n. a phrase often used in legal pleadings (complai ... nswer complaint declaration perjury
mandamus :: (man-dame-us) n. Latin for "we order," a writ (mor ... mandamus. See also: writ of mandate
mandatory :: adj., adv. absolutely demanded or required. ... v. absolutely demanded or required.
assault and battery :: n. the combination of the two crimes of threat (as ... damages. See also: assault battery
tide lands :: n. land between the high and low tides, which is u ... ch fronts on the sea at that point.
mandate :: n. 1) any mandatory order or requirement under sta ... See also: mandamus writ of mandate
law and motion calendar :: n. a court calendar in which only motions and spec ... special legal arguments are heard.
landlady :: n. female of landlord or owner of real property fr ... rents or leases. See also: landlord
accord and satisfaction :: n. an agreement to accept less than is legally due ... h" practicality. See also: novation
landlocked :: adj. referring to a parcel of real property which ... which it was created (carved out).
land :: n. real property, real estate (and all that grows ... See also: real estate real property
labor and materials :: (time and materials) n. what some builders or repa ... track of actual labor hours worked.
writ of mandate :: (mandamus) n. a court order to a government agency ... al acts. See also: mandamus mandate
witness stand :: n. a chair at the end of the judge's bench on the ... estimony clearly. See also: witness
landlord :: n. a person who owns real property and rents or le ... so: lease lessee lessor rent tenant
landlord and tenant :: n. the name for the area of law concerning renting ... ord lease lessee lessor rent tenant
unified estate and gift tax :: n. in federal estate taxes, the value of the estat ... turn. See also: estate tax gift tax
lewd and lascivious :: adj., adv. references to conduct which includes pe ... t exposure pornography prostitution
implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing :: n. a general assumption of the law of contracts, t ... -long employment. See also: implied
last will and testament :: n. a fancy and redundant way of saying "will." Law ... writing another one. See also: will
landlord's lien :: n. the right of a landlord to sell abandoned perso ... to the ex-tenant and a public sale.
joint and several :: adj. referring to a debt or a judgment for neglige ... ution contributory negligence joint
unclean hands :: n. a legal doctrine which is a defense to a compla ... ough. See also: affirmative defense
memorandum :: n. 1) a brief writing, note, summary or outline. 2 ... r "The decision below is affirmed."
errors and omissions :: n. short hand for malpractice insurance which give ... issions which amount to negligence.
payable on demand :: adj. a debt on a promissory note or bill of exchan ... e (party to whom the debt is owed).
confession and avoidance :: n. when a defendant admits the allegations in a co ... tries to avoid their legal impact.
peremptory writ of mandate :: (or mandamus) n. a final order of a court to any g ... ve writ. See also: mandamus mandate
panderer :: n. 1) a person who panders or solicits for a prost ... special interests. See also: pander
pain and suffering :: n. the physical and mental distress suffered from ... l damages special damages suffering
clean hands doctrine :: n. a rule of law that a person coming to court wit ... ices. See also: affirmative defense
clear and convincing evidence :: n. evidence that proves a matter by the "preponder ... See also: beyond a reasonable doubt
clear and present danger :: n. the doctrine established in an opinion written ... together of a lynch mob (assembly).
remand :: v. to send back. An appeals court may remand a cas ... ee also: appeal preliminary hearing
disposing mind and memory :: n. the mental ability to understand in general wha ... ng a will. See also: competent will
covenants, conditions and restrictions :: n. commonly called "CC and Rs," these are written ... ctive purchaser. See also: covenant
demand :: 1) v. to claim as a need, requirement or entitleme ... pay is made. See also: demand note
cruel and unusual punishment :: n. governmental penalties against convicted crimin ... opted. See also: capital punishment
privileges and immunities :: n. the fundamental rights that people enjoy in fre ... t impinge on constitutional rights.
covenant that runs with the land :: n. a promise contained in a deed to land or real e ... l future owners. See also: covenant
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals :: n. a federal court established (1929) to hear appe ... lso: Customs Court patent trademark
reasonable wear and tear :: n. commonly used in leases to limit the tenant's r ... ble wear and tear." See also: lease
direct and proximate cause :: n. the immediate reason damage was caused by an ac ... so: cause complaint proximate cause
descent and distribution :: n. the system of laws which determine who will inh ... nt inheritance intestate succession
on the stand :: prep. testifying during a trial, in which the witn ... troom and behind a knee-high panel.
on demand :: adj. in a promissory note, a requirement that the ... demand note." See also: demand note
modus operandi :: (mode-us ah-purr-and-ee or ah-purr-and-eye) n. fro ... es to disguise a fraudulent scheme.
grand theft :: n. See also: grand larceny ... n. See also: grand larceny
grand larceny :: n. the crime of theft of another's property (inclu ... f the loot. See also: larceny theft
Grand Jury :: n. a jury in each county or federal court district ... arge indictment preliminary hearing
Miranda warning :: n. the requirement, also called the Miranda rule, ... me such a suspect? See also: rights
metes and bounds :: (meets and bounds) n. a surveyor's description of ... of a parcel or lot are first drawn.
meet and confer :: n. a requirement of courts that before certain typ ... s which are freighted with emotion.
judgment notwithstanding the verdict :: (N.O.V.) n. reversal of a jury's verdict by the tr ... veredicto. See also: N.O.V. verdict
hit and run :: n. the crime of a driver of a vehicle who is invol ... , and then walks back to the scene.
standing :: n. the right to file a lawsuit or file a petition ... so: actual controversy jurisdiction
breaking and entering :: n. 1) the criminal act of entering a residence or ... above. See also: burglary trespass
slander :: n. oral defamation, in which someone tells one or ... . See also: defamation fair comment
cease and desist order :: n. an order of a court or government agency to a p ... ing which would damage the ecology.
share and share alike :: adj. referring to the equal division of a benefit ... among the three surviving nephews.
sound mind and memory :: n. having an understanding of one's actions and re ... ee also: competent incompetent will
free and clear :: adj. referring to the ownership of real property u ... the title has no claim against it.
standard of care :: n. the watchfulness, attention, caution and pruden ... of care foreseeable risk negligence
building and loan :: n. another name for savings and loan association. ... payment. See also: savings and loan
full faith and credit :: n. the provision in Article IV, Section 1 of the U ... "foreign" (out-of-state) judgment.
master and servant :: n. the body of law, including statutes and legal d ... lso: employment respondeat superior
grandfather clause :: n. 1) a clause in a statute or zoning ordinance (p ... Such laws are now unconstitutional.
American Civil Liberties Union :: n. a membership organization founded in 1920 to de ... rk, NY 10036; tel.: (212) 944-9800.
abstract of title :: n. the written report on a title search which show ... e also: chain of title title report
quitclaim deed :: n. a real property deed which transfers (conveys) ... also: convey deed grant deed title
title :: n. 1) ownership of real property or personal prope ... ink slip real property title search
work product :: n. the writings, notes, memoranda, reports on conv ... ies to be employed by the attorney.
jump bail :: v. to fail to appear for a court appearance after ... also: bail bail bond bail bondsman
grant :: v. to transfer real property from a title holder ( ... deed grantee grantor quitclaim deed
forensic medicine :: n. research, reports and testimony in court by exp ... dical examiners. See also: forensic
guarantee :: 1) v. to pledge or agree to be responsible for ano ... as some defect. See also: guarantor
fruit of the poisonous tree :: n. in criminal law, the doctrine that evidence dis ... property. See also: Miranda warning
patent :: 1) adj. obvious. Used in such expressions as a "pa ... patent infringement patent pending
abandon :: v. to intentionally and permanently give up, surre ... lso: abandoned property abandonment
suppression of evidence :: n. 1) a judge's determination not to allow evidenc ... the prosecutor. See also: evidence
abandoned property :: n. property left behind (often by a tenant) intent ... -use. See also: abandon abandonment
chain of title :: n. the succession of title ownership to real prope ... title conveyance foreclosure title
clerk :: n. 1) an official or employee who handles the busi ... stocking shelves, or counter sales.
covenant :: 1) n. a promise in a written contract or a deed of ... o compete deed restrictive covenant
deed :: 1) n. the written document which transfers title ( ... veyance deed of trust warranty deed
fair use :: n. the non-competitive right to use of copyrighted ... for a royalty. See also: copyright
abandonment :: n. the act of intentionally and permanently giving ... : abandon abandoned property patent
just compensation :: n. 1) in general a fair and reasonable amount of m ... ation make one whole quantum meruit
unlawful assembly :: n. the act of assembling for the purpose of starti ... gton and Chicago in the late 1960s.
civil rights :: n. those rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, ... ill of Rights civil civil liberties
jury of one's peers :: n. a guaranteed right of criminal defendants, in w ... y African Americans. See also: jury
due process of law :: n. a fundamental principle of fairness in all lega ... procedural and substantive rights.
palimony :: n. a substitute for alimony in cases in which the ... the relationship. See also: alimony
equal opportunity :: 1) n. a right supposedly guaranteed by both federa ... be so. See also: affirmative action
accommodation :: n. 1) a favor done without compensation (pay or co ... ke a deal work. See also: guarantor
judicial notice :: n. the authority of a judge to accept as facts cer ... elts in the sun. See also: evidence
certified check :: n. a check issued by a bank which certifies that t ... "clears." See also: cashier's check
arrest :: v. 1) to take or hold a suspected criminal with le ... anda warning probable cause warrant
cashier's check :: n. a check issued by a bank on its own account for ... ansfers, tax payments and the like.
jeopardy :: n. peril, particularly danger of being charged wit ... ar Evers. See also: double jeopardy
scrivener :: n. a person who writes a document for another, usu ... r practicing law without a license.
civil :: adj. 1) that part of the law that encompasses busi ... also: civil liberties civil rights
self-incrimination :: n. making statements or producing evidence which t ... nda warning rights taking the Fifth
qui tam action :: : (kwee tam) n. from Latin for "who as well," a la ... technical violations and/or errors.
running with the land :: adj. permanently part of the title (ownership) to ... title (ownership) to real property.
grant deed :: n. the document which transfers title to real prop ... rant grantee grantor quitclaim deed
open court :: n. the conduct of judicial proceedings (trials, he ... which are usually held in chambers.
prudent man rule :: n. the requirement that a trustee, investment mana ... (1994). See also: fiduciary trustee
privity :: n. contact, connection or mutual interest between ... with the seller. See also: contract
ready, willing and able :: adj. fully prepared to act, as in performing a con ... o act, as in performing a contract.
picketing :: n. standing or parading near a business or governm ... es or threats to the public safety.
pander :: 1) v. to solicit customers for a prostitute. 2) n. ... ons or favors. See also: prostitute
permit :: 1) v. to allow by silence, agreement or giving a l ... f public revenue. See also: license
false arrest :: n. physically detaining someone without the legal ... sment. See also: false imprisonment
right :: 1) n. an entitlement to something, whether to conc ... e also: civil rights marital rights
trust :: n. an entity created to hold assets for the benefi ... testamentary trust trustee trustor
life without possibility of parole :: n. a sentence sometimes given for particularly vic ... or may someday reduce the sentence.
liability :: n. one of the most significant words in the field ... bility joint tortfeasors negligence
jurisdiction :: n. the authority given by law to a court to try ca ... Superior Court Supreme Court venue
law of the land :: n. a slang term for existing laws. ... n. a slang term for existing laws.
bond :: n. 1) written evidence of debt issued by a company ... good up to the amount of the bond.
mandatory joinder :: n. the required inclusion of a party in a lawsuit ... sues in the case. See also: joinder
consumer protection laws :: n. almost all states and the federal government ha ... rranty product liability securities
disinherit :: v. to intentionally take actions to guarantee that ... rorem clause pretermitted heir will
sedition :: n. the federal crime of advocacy of insurrection a ... e rare. See also: espionage treason
grandfathered in :: adj. refers to continued allowed use of property a ... or zoning ordinances were adopted.
check :: n. a draft upon a particular account in a bank, in ... rtified check negotiable instrument
citation :: n. 1) a notice to appear in court due to the proba ... se is not in point." See also: cite
guaranty :: v. and n. an older spelling of guarantee, which th ... elling" (1882). See also: guarantee
quo warranto :: (kwoh wahr-rahn-toe) n. the name for a writ (order ... ticles). See also: corporation writ
foreign corporation :: n. a corporation which is incorporated under the l ... tate or Whoopee's designated agent.
exemplary damages :: n. often called punitive damages, these are damage ... See also: damages punitive damages
extradition :: n. the surrender by one state or country of a pers ... ty. See also: fugitive from justice
extenuating circumstances :: n. surrounding factors (sometimes called mitigatio ... See also: mitigating circumstances
nuisance :: n. the unreasonable, unwarranted and/or unlawful u ... evening). See also: public nuisance
caveat emptor :: (kah-vee-ott emptor) Latin for "let the buyer bewa ... See also: consumer protection laws
intestacy :: n. the condition of having died without a valid wi ... e. See also: intestate probate will
admission to bail :: n. an order of a court in a criminal case allowing ... lient. See also: bail bail bondsman
self-defense :: n. the use of reasonable force to protect oneself ... ndalism. See also: assault homicide
audit :: n. an examination by a trained accountant of the f ... rmation provided. See also: auditor
bill of lading :: n. a receipt obtained by the shipper of goods from ... ll of lading, there is no delivery.
due, owing and unpaid :: adj. See also: due ... adj. See also: due
demand note :: n. a promissory note which is payable any time the ... allments. See also: promissory note
Uniform Commercial Code :: n. a set of statutes governing the conduct of busi ... s except Louisiana. See also: UCC-1
child custody :: n. a court's determination of which parent, relati ... pport custody divorce joint custody
latent defect :: n. a hidden flaw, weakness or imperfection in an a ... warranty product liability warranty
levy :: 1) v. to seize (take) property upon a writ of exec ... heriff's sale tax writ of execution
damages :: n. the amount of money which a plaintiff (the pers ... liquidated damages special damages
product liability :: n. the responsibility of manufacturers, distributo ... e known. See also: warrant warranty
aid and abet :: v. help commit a crime. A lawyer redundancy since ... be paid by the word. See also: abet
due and owing :: adj. See also: due ... adj. See also: due
indemnify :: v. to guarantee against any loss which another mig ... r harmless. See also: hold harmless
unreasonable search and seizure :: n. search of an individual or his/her premises (in ... e probable cause search and seizure
search and seizure :: n. examination of a person's premises (residence, ... robable cause search search warrant
search warrant :: n. a written order by a judge which permits a law ... ble cause search search and seizure
partner :: n. 1) one of the co-owners and investors in a "par ... ner limited partnership partnership
party of the first part :: n. reference in a written contract to identify one ... ies another party to the agreement.
participate :: v. to invest and then receive a part or share, as ... he estate of a person who has died.
offset :: 1) n. also called a "setoff," the deduction by a d ... e also: counterclaim defense setoff
partnership :: n. a business enterprise entered into for profit w ... partnership partner silent partner
partition :: n. a lawsuit which one co-owner of real property c ... sell, keep or divide the property.
patent infringement :: n. the manufacture and/or use of an invention or i ... not. See also: infringement patent
per capita :: adj. Latin for "by head," meaning to be determined ... ivided equally among those persons.
penal :: adj. referring to criminality, as in defining "pen ... ntiary confining convicted felons).
officer of the court :: n. any person who has an obligation to promote jus ... also: attorney bailiff clerk judge
offer of proof :: n. an explanation made by an attorney to a judge d ... rial irrelevant objection testimony
per diem :: adj. or n. Latin for "per day," it is short for pa ... or fees of an employee or an agent.
per stirpes :: (purr stir-peas) adj. Latin for "by roots," by rep ... descent and distribution trust will
offer :: n. a specific proposal to enter into an agreement ... es the contract. See also: contract
official misconduct :: n. improper and/or illegal acts by a public offici ... ty. See also: color of law official
peer review :: n. an examination and evaluation of the performanc ... claiming damages due to negligence.
partial breach :: n. the failure to meet a term of a contract which ... g in the missing or expected items.
passive :: adj. referring to being inactive. A "passive trust ... ment and interest on bank accounts.
passenger :: n. a rider who has paid a fare on a train, bus, ai ... also: common carrier guest statute
paternity suit :: n. a lawsuit, usually by a mother, to prove that a ... d to a prompt and quiet settlement.
pawn :: v. to pledge an item of personal property as secur ... nsed by the state. See also: pledge
pedophilia :: n. an obsession with children as sex objects. Over ... also: molestation pornography rape
payment in due course :: n. the giving of funds to the holder of a promisso ... nds. See also: holder in due course
officious intermeddler :: n. a volunteer who assists and/or benefits another ... efit. See also: Good Samaritan rule
parens patriae :: (paa-rens pat-tree-eye) n. Latin for "father of hi ... pport custody divorce guardian ward
out-of-pocket expenses :: n. moneys paid directly for necessary items by a c ... amages beyond normal wear and tear.
outlaw :: n. popularly, anyone who commits serious crimes an ... us crimes and acts outside the law.
peremptory :: adj. absolute, final and not entitled to delay or ... allenges or a date set for hearing.
opinion :: n. the explanation of a court's judgment. When a t ... which the author is not specified.
output contract :: n. an agreement in which a producer agrees to sell ... h it may have to store away a glut.
overt act :: n. in criminal law, an action which might be innoc ... terrorist bombing of that building.
overrule :: v. 1) to reject an attorney's objection to a quest ... : appellate court objection sustain
out of court :: adj. referring to actions, including negotiations ... is dismissed. See also: settlement
ordinary course of business :: n. conduct of business within normal commercial cu ... rmal commercial customs and usages.
order :: 1) n. every direction or mandate of a judge or a c ... defendant. See also: judge judgment
oral contract :: n. an agreement made with spoken words and either ... itten. See also: agreement contract
or :: conj. either; in the alternative. It is often vita ... n," both must sign to change title.
option :: n. a right to purchase property or require another ... ng or upon expiration of the lease.
ordinary :: adj. regular, customary and continuing, and not un ... , ordinary risks or ordinary skill.
order to show cause :: n. a judge's written mandate that a party appear i ... vernmental agency. See also: O.S.C.
own recognizance :: (O.R.) n. the basis for a judge allowing a person ... n recognizance. See also: bail O.R.
paid into court :: adj. referring to money deposited with the clerk o ... differences. See also: interpleader
parent :: n. the lawful and natural father or mother of a pe ... natural parent. See also: adoption
on or about :: prep. a phrase referring to a date or place used i ... reets:." See also: charge complaint
pardon :: 1) v. to use the executive power of a Governor or ... also: amnesty commutation reprieve
parental neglect :: n. a crime consisting of acts or omissions of a pa ... usive or sexually predatory person.
on all fours :: adj. a reference to a lawsuit in which all the leg ... ame conclusion. See also: precedent
parody :: n. the humorous use of an existing song, play, or ... l significance. See also: copyright
offshore corporation :: n. a corporation chartered under the laws of a cou ... nds in accounts out of the country.
parcel :: n. a defined piece of real estate, usually resulti ... See also: real estate real property
paralegal :: n. a non-lawyer who performs routine tasks requiri ... h less than that for the attorneys.
opening statement :: n. the explanation by the attorneys for both sides ... rgument. See also: closing argument
operation of law :: n. a change or transfer which occurs automatically ... atically upon the child turning 18.
jury tampering :: n. the crime of attempting to influence a jury thr ... e also: jury subornation of perjury
paper hanger :: n. slang for a person who criminally writes and ca ... ey in them. See also: forgery fraud
on the merits :: adj. referring to a judgment, decision or ruling o ... s if this mistake had not occurred.
par :: n. 1) an equal level. 2) the face value of a stock ... common stock preferred stock stock
parole :: n. 1) the release of a convicted criminal defendan ... sed he will not take up arms again.
piracy :: n. the crime of robbery of ships or boats on the o ... here the accused has been captured.
prime suspect :: n. the one person law enforcement officers believe ... in trial. See also: Miranda warning
prima facie case :: n. a plaintiff's lawsuit or a criminal charge whic ... en and shut." See also: prima facie
prima facie :: : (pry-mah fay-shah) adj. Latin for "at first look ... t" case. See also: prima facie case
price fixing :: n. a criminal violation of federal antitrust statu ... stributors to beat the competition.
primogeniture :: n. from Latin for "first born," the ancient rule f ... oes not exist in the United States.
principal :: n. 1) main person in a business. 2) employer, the ... ry agency agent respondeat superior
priority :: n. the right to be first or ahead of the rights or ... (in the "race to the courthouse").
prior(s) :: n. slang for a criminal defendant's previous recor ... es for the third felony conviction.
prior restraint :: n. an attempt to prevent publication or broadcast ... e words of Sir William Blackstone).
principal place of business :: n. location of head office of a business where the ... business to the Secretary of State.
prevailing party :: n. the winner in a lawsuit. Many contracts, leases ... ed before or after trial has begun.
pretermitted heir :: n. the child of a person who has written a will in ... cified $10,000 each. See also: heir
prenuptial agreement :: n. also called an antenuptial agreement, a written ... been "taken" by a previous spouse.
premises :: n. 1) in real estate, land and the improvements on ... t). See also: real estate structure
premeditation :: n. planning, plotting or deliberating before doing ... e murder malice aforethought murder
preliminary hearing :: n. in criminal law, a hearing to determine if a pe ... nment charge Grand Jury information
preponderance of the evidence :: n. the greater weight of the evidence required in ... what subjective. See also: evidence
prescription :: n. the method of acquiring an easement upon anothe ... ty. See also: prescriptive easement
presumption :: n. a rule of law which permits a court to assume a ... resumption at all, but a certainty.
presiding judge :: n. 1) in both state and federal appeals court, the ... and chairs meetings of the judges.
presentment :: n. 1) making a demand for payment of a promissory ... ee also: Grand Jury promissory note
prescriptive easement :: n. an easement upon another's real property acquir ... on. See also: easement prescription
private carrier :: n. one who provides transportation or delivery of ... also: common carrier guest statute
private nuisance :: n. the interference with an individual's peaceful ... See also: nuisance public nuisance
promise :: 1) n. a firm agreement to perform an act, refrain ... so: consideration contract covenant
prohibition :: n. forbidding an act or activity. A court order fo ... icial. See also: injunction mandate
professional corporation :: n. a corporation formed for the purpose of conduct ... rofessionals. See also: corporation
process :: n. in law, the legal means by which a person is re ... service of process subpena summons
promissory estoppel :: n. a false statement treated as a promise by a cou ... lue of his work. See also: estoppel
promissory note :: n. a written promise by a person (variously called ... lso: interest obligee obligor usury
proper party :: n. a person or entity who has an interest (financi ... lf. See also: necessary party party
proof :: n. confirmation of a fact by evidence. In a trial, ... doubt preponderance of the evidence
promotional stock :: n. stock issued in a newly formed corporation and ... assets or money. See also: promoter
promoter :: n. a person who puts together a business, particul ... y effort and not by assets or cash.
proceeding :: n. any legal filing, hearing, trial and/or judgmen ... edings," as in "legal proceedings."
procedure :: n. the methods and mechanics of the legal process. ... cases are tried and judgments made.
privileged communication :: n. statements and conversations made under circums ... See also: attorney-client privilege
private road :: n. a road or driveway on privately owned property, ... ng. See also: prescriptive easement
private property :: n. land not owned by the government or dedicated t ... ernment or dedicated to public use.
private parts :: n. men's or women's genitalia, excluding a woman's ... duction and/or sale of pornography.
pro bono :: adj. short for pro bono publico, Latin for "for th ... cation organizations and charities.
probate :: 1) n. the process of proving a will is valid and t ... e also: administrator executor will
probative value :: n. evidence which is sufficiently useful to prove ... prior actions. See also: probative
probative :: adj. in evidence law, tending to prove something. ... so: probative facts probative value
probation :: n. a chance to remain free (or serve only a short ... See also: attorney-client privilege
preferred stock :: n. a class of shares of stock in a corporation whi ... on stock corporation dividend stock
preference :: n. in bankruptcy, the payment of a debt to one cre ... nds or assets. See also: bankruptcy
petty larceny :: n. a term used in many states for theft of a small ... emeanor in charging and sentencing.
petitioner :: n. one who signs and/or files a petition. See also ... iles a petition. See also: petition
petition :: 1) n. a formal written request to a court for an o ... dent. See also: divorce motion writ
petit jury :: n. old-fashioned name for the jury sitting to hear ... r duties. See also: Grand Jury jury
jury selection :: n. the means by which a jury is chosen, with a pan ... y panel peremptory challenge venire
physician-patient privilege :: n. the right and obligation of a physician to refu ... onfidential communication privilege
plain error :: n. a mistake by the trial court found by a court o ... ire reversal of the trial decision.
plagiarism :: n. taking the writings or literary concepts (a plo ... d. See also: copyright infringement
pimp :: n. a person who procures a prostitute for customer ... also: pander panderer prostitution
pierce the corporate veil :: v. to prove that a corporation exists merely as a ... ling with it. See also: corporation
personal services :: n. in contract law, the talents of a person which ... his/her unique ability and product.
personal service :: n. delivering a summons, complaint, notice to quit ... process substituted service summons
perjurer :: n. a person who intentionally lies while under an ... alse information. See also: perjury
performance :: n. fulfillment of one's obligations required by co ... nce. See also: specific performance
perfect :: : (with stress on the second syllable) v. 1) to co ... perfect. See also: mechanic's lien
peremptory challenge :: n. the right of the plaintiff and the defendant in ... challenge for cause jury voir dire
permanent disability :: n. an injury which impairs the physical and/or men ... t injury Workers' Compensation Acts
permanent injury :: n. physical or mental damage which will restrict t ... ges. See also: permanent disability
personal effects :: n. things which include clothes, cosmetics and ite ... e, Susannah"). See also: personalty
person :: n. 1) a human being. 2) a corporation treated as h ... amages. See also: corporation party
permissive :: adj. 1) referring to any act which is allowed by c ... ting contrary to others' standards.
plaintiff :: n. the party who initiates a lawsuit by filing a c ... lso: complaint defendant petitioner
plea bargain :: n. in criminal procedure, a negotiation between th ... the ban. See also: cop a plea plea
power of acceptance :: n. the ability to accept an offer and thus create ... ecide to accept the original offer.
power :: n. the right, authority and ability to take some a ... g legal rights and many other acts.
postdated check :: n. a check delivered now with a written date in th ... livery of a bad check was criminal.
possibility of a reverter :: n. the potential that the title to a real property ... further issue. See also: reversion
power of appointment :: n. the right to leave property by will, transfer, ... death of the person with the power.
power of attorney :: n. a written document signed by a person giving an ... y, as in a real estate transaction.
preemption :: n. the rule of law that if the federal government ... cs control may parallel each other.
precatory :: adj. referring to a wish or advisory suggestion wh ... lutely prevent her from selling it.
prayer :: n. the specific request for judgment, relief and/o ... ee also: complaint default judgment
pray :: v. to formally request judicial judgment, relief a ... laint or petition. See also: prayer
possessory interest :: n. in real estate, the intent and right of a perso ... o: possess possession real property
possession :: n. 1) any article, object, asset or property which ... ctive possession. See also: possess
police powers :: n. from the 10th Amendment to the Constitution, wh ... host of state regulatory statutes.
police court :: n. in some states a type of municipal court which ... municipal court preliminary hearing
pleading :: n. 1) every legal document filed in a lawsuit, pet ... nswer complaint demurrer plea plead
plead :: v. 1) in civil lawsuits and petitions, to file any ... al conduct. See also: plea pleading
political question :: n. the determination by a court (particularly the ... ne-vote," as constitutional issues.
polygamy :: n. having more than one wife or husband at the sam ... ime in all states. See also: bigamy
posse comitatus :: (pahs-see coh-mitt-tah-tus) n. from Latin for "pos ... group is called a posse for short.
positive law :: n. statutory man-made law, as compared to "natural ... 651). See also: natural law statute
pornography :: n. pictures and/or writings of sexual activity int ... courts to follow. See also: obscene
jury stress :: n. a form of mental, emotional, psychological, phy ... do the right thing. See also: jury
no contest :: n. in criminal law, a defendant's plea in court th ... : nolo contendere plea plea bargain
long cause :: n. a lawsuit in which it is estimated that a trial ... dar call court calendar short cause
loiter :: v. to linger or hang around in a public place or b ... kenness or being a public nuisance.
living will :: n. also called "a durable power of attorney," it i ... upport. See also: power of attorney
living trust :: n. sometimes called an inter vivos (Latin for "wit ... thrift clause trust trustee trustor
loss :: n. 1) the value placed on injury or damages due to ... t and the income. See also: damages
loss of consortium :: n. the inability of one's spouse to have normal ma ... ation. See also: consortium damages
Magna Carta :: n. Latin for "Great Charter," it was a document de ... s. It is also spelled Magna Charta.
magistrate :: n. 1) a generic term for any judge of a court, or ... ce of the peace preliminary hearing
M. O. :: n. slang for modus operandi, the way or pattern in ... her crime. See also: modus operandi
loss of use :: n. the inability to use an automobile, premises or ... ding or premises. See also: damages
litigious :: adj. referring to a person who constantly brings o ... e called "professional plaintiffs."
litigant :: n. any party to a lawsuit. This means plaintiff, d ... ant, but not a witness or attorney.
lineal descendant :: n. a person who is in direct line to an ancestor, ... See also: descent and distribution
limited partnership :: n. a special type of partnership which is very com ... mited liability partner partnership
limited liability :: n. the maximum amount a person participating in a ... ted damages partnership shareholder
limited jurisdiction :: n. courts' authority over certain types of cases s ... value. See also: court jurisdiction
lineup :: n. a law enforcement method used in an attempt to ... entification is precarious at best.
liquidate :: v. to sell the assets of a business, paying bills ... other investors. See also: wind up
literary property :: n. the writings of an author which entitles him/he ... as copyrighted. See also: copyright
lis pendens :: (lease pen-dense) n. Latin for "a suit pending," a ... ob can be penalized by court order.
liquidated damages :: n. an amount of money agreed upon by both parties ... airness. See also: contract damages
mail box rule :: n. in contract law, making a written offer or acce ... nse in hand when the time runs out.
maim :: v. to inflict a serious bodily injury, including m ... to a prison term. See also: mayhem
marketable title :: n. the title to real property which has no encumbr ... e. See also: contract real property
marked for identification :: adj. documents or objects presented during a trial ... exhibit lay a foundation objection
maritime law :: n. Also called "admiralty law" or "the law of admi ... r maritime law. See also: admiralty
marital rights :: n. an old-fashioned expression for the rights of a ... also: consortium loss of consortium
marriage :: n. the joining of a male and female in matrimony b ... of time without legal formalities.
marshal :: 1) n. a federal court official who may serve paper ... tablish priorities among creditors.
material :: adj. relevant and significant. In a lawsuit, "mate ... contract is not a material breach.
master :: n. 1) employer, in the area of law known as "maste ... ter and servant respondeat superior
Massachusetts Trust :: n. a business in which the investors give manageme ... provide for eventual distribution.
martial law :: n. a system of complete control by a country's mil ... n and women. See also: military law
marital deduction :: n. an estate tax deduction allowed a surviving spo ... community property estate tax trust
manslaughter :: n. the unlawful killing of another person without ... laughter. See also: homicide murder
malice aforethought :: n. 1) the conscious intent to cause death or great ... : first degree murder malice murder
malice :: n. a conscious, intentional wrongdoing either of a ... cution murder public figure slander
malfeasance :: n. intentionally doing something either legally or ... sponsibility. See also: misfeasance
majority :: n. 1) the age when a person can exercise all norma ... t. See also: child infancy minority
malicious prosecution :: n. filing a lawsuit with the intention of creating ... vor of the victim. See also: malice
malpractice :: n. An act or continuing conduct of a professional ... eed. See also: errors and omissions
Mann Act :: n. a federal statute making it a crime to transpor ... is five years in a federal prison.
malum prohibitum :: (mal-uhm prohibit-uhm) adj. Latin meaning "wrong d ... lso: malum in se white collar crime
malum in se :: (mal-uhm in say) adv. Latin referring to an act th ... hibitum. See also: malum prohibitum
limitation of actions :: n. the period of time in which a person has to fil ... e. See also: statute of limitations
life estate :: n. the right to use or occupy real property for on ... hter, Sadie, will own the property.
law of the case :: n. once a judge has decided a legal question durin ... he ruling is the "law of the case."
law of admiralty :: n. statutes, customs and treaties dealing with act ... w. See also: Jones Act maritime law
law book :: n. any of numerous volumes dealing with law, inclu ... : common law law Shepardize statute
law :: n. 1) any system of regulations to govern the cond ... um maritime law natural law statute
lay a foundation :: v. in evidence, to provide to the judge the qualif ... ce and training. See also: evidence
leading :: 1) v. short for "leading the witness," in which th ... tness leading the witness objection
legal advertising :: n. 1) notices of probate sales and other documents ... quality of the lawyers advertising.
leasehold :: n. the real estate which is the subject of a lease ... sehold. See also: condominium lease
lease :: 1) n. a written agreement in which the owner of pr ... triple net lease unlawful detainer
leading question :: n. a question asked of a witness by an attorney du ... e also: cross-examination objection
lateral support :: n. the right of a land- owner to assurance that hi ... support problems are less dramatic.
last clear chance :: n. a rule of law in determining responsibility for ... contributory negligence negligence
K :: n. the shorthand symbol for "contract" used almost ... rsally by lawyers and law students.
juvenile delinquent :: n. a person who is under age (usually below 18), w ... low as 14. See also: juvenile court
juvenile court :: n. a special court or department of a trial court ... See also: court juvenile delinquent
justice of the peace :: (JP) n. a judge who handles minor legal matters su ... ersons to qualify by taking a test.
kangaroo court :: n. 1) a mock court set up without legal basis, suc ... See also: star chamber proceedings
kidnapping :: (also spelled kidnaping) n. the taking of a person ... but now applies to adults as well.
last antecedent rule :: n. a doctrine of interpretation (construction) of ... o trucks and not boats or tractors.
larceny :: n. the crime of taking the goods of another person ... : grand larceny petty larceny theft
laches :: n. the legal doctrine that a legal right or claim ... , breach of contract, fraud, etc.).
legal age :: n. the age at which a person is responsible for hi ... so: infancy juvenile court minority
legal aid society :: n. an organization formed to assist persons who ha ... bar association. See also: pro bono
liable :: adj. responsible or obligated. Thus, a person or e ... al prosecution. See also: liability
leverage :: 1) n. the use of borrowed money to purchase real e ... e been created by risky leveraging.
letters testamentary :: n. a document issued by the court clerk which stat ... te. See also: administrator probate
letters of administration :: n. a document issued by the court clerk which stat ... estate. See also: executor probate
libel :: 1) n. to publish in print (including pictures), wr ... libel per se public figure slander
libel per se :: n. broadcast or written publication of a false sta ... See also: defamation libel slander
lien :: n. any official claim or charge against property o ... ord's lien mechanic's lien mortgage
lie detector test :: n. a popular name for a polygraph which tests the ... be referred to. See also: polygraph
liberty :: n. freedom from restraint and the power to follow ... the benefit of the general public.
letters :: n. shorthand for letters testamentary or letters o ... administration letters testamentary
lessor :: n. the owner of real property who rents it to a le ... lord and tenant lease lessee tenant
legalese :: n. slang for the sometimes arcane, convoluted and ... rgon of lawyers and legal scholars.
legal separation :: n. a court-decreed right to live apart, with the r ... n is rarely used. See also: divorce
legal fiction :: n. a presumption of fact assumed by a court for co ... he law, and not law from fictions."
legal duty :: n. the responsibility to others to act according t ... al injuries. See also: duty of care
legatee :: n. a person or organization receiving a gift of an ... eficiary devise devisee legacy will
legitimate :: adj., adv1) legal, proper, real. 2) referring to a ... 3) v. to make proper and/or legal.
lesser-included offense :: n. in criminal law, a crime which is proved by the ... g jail time. See also: plea bargain
lessee :: n. the person renting property under a written lea ... lord and tenant lease lessor tenant
lemon law :: n. statutes adopted in some states to make it easi ... still trying" to make it run right.
matter of record :: n. anything, including testimony, evidence, ruling ... cussions not written down or taped.
maturity :: n. 1) the date when the payment of the principal a ... exchange legal age promissory note
negative pregnant :: n. a denial of an allegation in which a person act ... suse, just the amount and the date.
negative declaration :: n. a finding by a city council or other local gove ... so: EIR environmental impact report
necessary party :: n. a person or entity whose interests will be affe ... o: indispensable party proper party
necessary inference :: n. 1) a conclusion militated by reason and logic a ... nown facts. 2) unavoidable meaning.
negligence :: n. failure to exercise the care toward others whic ... gence per se res ipsa loquitur tort
negotiable instrument :: n. check, promissory note, bill of exchange, secur ... bearer paper bill of exchange check
next of kin :: n. 1) the nearest blood relatives of a person who ... See also: descent and distribution
net estate :: n. the remaining estate of a person who has died, ... alue. See also: estate tax gift tax
net :: : n., adj. the amount of money or value remaining ... or net estate. See also: net estate
negotiation :: n. 1) the transfer of a check, promissory note, bi ... te. See also: negotiable instrument
natural law :: n. 1) standards of conduct derived from traditiona ... eated by mankind through the state.
National Labor Relations Board :: n. an independent regulatory commission created in ... see union and organizing elections.
motion to suppress :: n. a motion (usually on behalf of a criminal defen ... eshold." See also: motion in limine
motion to strike :: n. a request for a judge's order to eliminate all ... be unrung." See also: motion strike
motion in limine :: (lim-in-nay) n. Latin for "threshold," a motion ma ... o: in limine Miranda warning motion
motion for dismissal :: (non-suit) n. application by a defendant in a laws ... otion for nonsuit. See also: motion
multiplicity of suits :: n. several actual or potential lawsuits which shou ... e can order the cases consolidated.
municipal court :: n. a lower court which usually tries criminal misd ... nd/or small claims. See also: court
N.O.V. :: adj. shorthand acronym of Latin for non obstante v ... notwithstanding the verdict verdic
mutual :: adj., adv. referring to anything in which both par ... rights, understanding or agreement.
murder :: n. the killing of a human being by a sane person, ... premeditation second degree murder
no fault divorce :: n. divorces (dissolutions) in which neither spouse ... and South Dakota. See also: divorce
no fault insurance :: n: a type of automobile insurance required of car ... ling lawsuits. See also: negligence
novation :: n. agreement of parties to a contract to substitut ... . See also: accord and satisfaction
notice to quit :: n. the notice given by a landlord (owner) to a ten ... h-to-month notice unlawful detainer
notice of default :: n. a notice to a borrower with property as securit ... notice of default. See also: notice
notice :: n. 1) information, usually in writing in all legal ... Thirty-day notice three-day notice
nunc pro tunc :: (nuhnk proh tuhnk) adj. Latin for "now for then," ... r actuality of a bigamous marriage.
oath :: n. 1) a swearing to tell the truth, the whole trut ... ountry. See also: affidavit perjury
occupy the field :: v. to preempt (monopolize) an area of statutory la ... ertain topics. See also: preemption
occupational hazard :: n. a danger or risk inherent in certain employment ... e of death or injury while at work.
objection :: n. a lawyer's protest about the legal propriety of ... ng question object overrule sustain
object :: 1) v. to ask the court not to allow a particular q ... he contract..." See also: objection
note :: n. a promissory note, a written statement of debt ... the note. See also: promissory note
notary public :: n. a person authorized by the state in which the p ... he state which appoints the notary.
non-conforming use :: n. the existing use (residential, commercial, agri ... eneral plan grandfathered in zoning
nominee :: n. 1) a person or entity who is requested or named ... ic office. See also: agent executor
nominal party :: n. a defendant or a plaintiff included in a lawsui ... ed. See also: necessary party party
nolle prosequi :: (no-lay pro-say-kwee) n. Latin for "we shall no lo ... nocent and declared nolle prosequi.
non-discretionary trust :: n. a trust in which the trustee is directed to inv ... ower in the matter. See also: trust
non-profit corporation :: n. an organization incorporated under state laws a ... harity corporation cy pres doctrine
not guilty by reason of insanity :: n. plea in court of a person charged with a crime ... fense not guilty temporary insanity
not guilty :: n. 1) plea of a person who claims not to have comm ... t guilty by reason of insanity plea
non-suit :: n. a ruling by the judge in a lawsuit either when ... the defendant. See also: dismissal
motion for a summary judgment :: n. a written request for a judgment in the moving ... strict procedures. See also: motion
motion for a new trial :: n. a request made by the loser for the case to be ... hstanding the verdict motion N.O.V.
military law :: n. regulations governing the conduct of men and wo ... also: court-martial judge advocate
mesne profits :: n. profits which have accrued while there was a di ... ed "mesne profits." See also: mesne
merger :: n. 1) in corporate law, the joining together of tw ... and taking one, and wife the other.
merchantable :: adj. a product of a high enough quality to make it ... taminated or flawed. See also: sale
mining claim :: n. a description by boundaries of real property in ... g within a specific period of time.
minority :: n. 1) in voting, a side with less than half the vo ... See also: legal age majority minor
misdemeanor :: n. a lesser crime punishable by a fine and/or coun ... tion are felonies. See also: felony
misappropriation :: n. the intentional, illegal use of the property or ... mbezzlement fiduciary larceny theft
mirror wills :: n. the wills of a husband and wife which are ident ... d each names the other as executor.
minutes :: n. 1) the written record of meetings, particularly ... court reporter if recorded at all.
mercantile law :: n. that broad area of the law (also called commerc ... tion seller Uniform Commercial Code
mental cruelty :: n. a term, rapidly going out of fashion and out of ... history. See also: cruelty divorce
McNabb-Mallory rule :: n. a federal rule of evidence in criminal trials t ... present. See also: Miranda warning
mayhem :: 1) n. the criminal act of disabling, disfiguring o ... so: aggravated assault assault maim
may :: v. a choice to act or not, or a promise of a possi ... sion or regulation. See also: shall
maxims :: n. a collection of legal truisms which are used as ... e and the ordinary habits of life."
mechanic's lien :: n. the right of a craftsman, laborer, supplier, ar ... ll sue for the debt. See also: lien
mediation :: n. the attempt to settle a legal dispute through a ... a settlement. See also: arbitration
mental anguish :: n. mental suffering which includes fright, feeling ... See also: damages mental suffering
meeting of the minds :: n. when two parties to an agreement (contract) bot ... eant his cattle. See also: contract
mediator :: n. a person who conducts mediation. A mediator is ... o: arbitration arbitrator mediation
misfeasance :: n. management of a business, public office or othe ... n of the law. See also: malfeasance
misprision of a felony :: n. the crime of concealing another's felony (serio ... also: accessory aid and abet felony
moral certainty :: n. in a criminal trial, the reasonable belief (but ... : beyond a reasonable doubt verdict
monument :: n. 1) an established landmark which a surveyor use ... torn down or substantially altered.
month-to-month :: adj. referring to a tenancy in which the tenant pa ... e also: landlord and tenant tenancy
monopoly :: n. a business or inter-related group of businesses ... ust laws license restraint of trade
moral turpitude :: n. gross violation of standards of moral conduct, ... r penalty for a criminal defendant.
moratorium :: n. 1) any suspension of activity, particularly vol ... to normal activities and earnings.
motion :: n. a formal request made to a judge for an order o ... g, an oral motion may be permitted.
mortgagor :: n. the person who has borrowed money and pledged h ... agee). See also: mortgage mortgagee
mortgage :: n. a document in which the owner pledges his/her/i ... losure notice of default trust deed
molestation :: n. the crime of sexual acts with children up to th ... of rape. See also: pedophilia rape
jury trial :: n. a trial of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution in ... the final judgment. See also: jury
mitigating circumstances :: n. in criminal law, conditions or happenings which ... ity heat of passion Twinkie defense
mistrial :: n. the termination of a trial before its normal co ... from the beginning. See also: trial
mistake :: n. 1) an error in comprehending facts, meaning of ... time. See also: contract rescission
misrepresentation :: n. the crime of misstating facts to obtain money, ... etenses." See also: false pretenses
mitigation of damages :: n. the requirement that someone injured by another ... he lease) to mitigate his/her loss.
M'Naughten rule :: n. a traditional "right and wrong" test of legal i ... temporary insanity Twinkie defense
justice :: n. 1) fairness. 2) moral rightness. 3) a scheme or ... e appellate courts. See also: court
property :: n. anything that is owned by a person or entity. P ... rty real property separate property
modification :: n. a change in an existing court order or judgment ... terms of child support and custody.
of counsel :: adj. reference to an attorney who is not actively ... quiring his/her full-time presence.
reciprocal discovery :: n. the exchange of documents, lists of witnesses, ... n before trial. See also: discovery
sum certain :: n. a specific amount stated in a contract or negot ... r redecoration of Williams' house."
summary adjudication of issues :: n. a court order ruling that certain factual issue ... is made. See also: summary judgment
suicide :: n. the intentional killing of oneself. Ironically, ... e manslaughter second degree murder
suffering :: n. the pain, hurt, inconvenience, embarrassment an ... njury negligence pain and suffering
successive sentences :: n. in criminal law, the imposition of the penalty ... uld be 15 years. See also: sentence
summary judgment :: n. a court order ruling that no factual issues rem ... tion summary adjudication of issues
summation :: n. the final argument of an attorney at the close ... 's case. See also: closing argument
supra :: (sooh-prah) Latin for "above," in legal briefs and ... d as Guinn v. United States, supra.
superseding cause :: n. the same as an "intervening cause" or "superven ... : intervening cause proximate cause
supersedeas :: (sooh-purr-said-ee-uhs) Latin for "you shall desis ... . See also: appeal court of appeals
summons :: n. a document issued by the court at the time a la ... use service service of process writ
succession :: n. the statutory rules of inheritance of a dead pe ... istribution." See also: inheritance
substitution of attorney :: n. a document in which the party to a lawsuit stat ... t any time. See also: substitute in
subpena duces tecum :: : (suh-pea-nah dooh-chess-take-uhm or dooh-kess-ta ... ng a court order. See also: witness
subpena :: (subpoena): (suh-pea-nah) n. an order of the court ... ubpena duces tecum subpoena witness
subornation of perjury :: n. the crime of encouraging, inducing or assisting ... itness's perjury. See also: perjury
submitted :: n. the conclusion of all evidence and argument in ... , no further argument is permitted.
subrogation :: n. assuming the legal rights of a person for whom ... also: negligence subrogee subrogor
subrogor :: n. a person or entity that transfers his/her/its l ... ges. See also: subrogation subrogee
substituted service :: n. accomplishing service (delivery) of legal docum ... ee also: service service of process
substantive law :: n. law which establishes principles and creates an ... are conducted. See also: procedure
substantial performance :: n. in the law of contracts, fulfillment of the obl ... also: contract specific performance
subscribe :: v. 1) to sign at the end of a document. The courts ... r periodical magazine or newspaper.
supremacy clause :: n. Article VI, section 2 of the U.S. Constitution, ... f involving a constitutional issue.
Supreme Court :: n. 1) the highest court in the United States, whic ... rt in other states. See also: court
temporary injunction :: n. a court order prohibiting an action by a party ... ry injunction. See also: injunction
tax return :: n. the form to be filed with a taxing authority by ... able to the taxpayer. See also: tax
tax evasion :: n. intentional and fraudulent attempt to escape pa ... o reduce the amount of payable tax.
Tax Court :: n. a federal agency with courts in major cities wh ... Appeals. See also: court income tax
temporary insanity :: n. in a criminal prosecution, a defense by the acc ... diminished capacity insanity intent
tenancy :: n. the right to occupy real property permanently, ... rety tenancy in common tenant title
tenancy in common :: n. title to property (usually real property, but i ... on. See also: joint tenancy tenancy
tenancy by the entirety :: n. joint ownership of title by husband and wife, i ... ee also: community property tenancy
tenancy at will :: n. occupation of real property owned by another un ... right to occupy. See also: tenancy
tenancy at sufferance :: n. a "hold-over" tenancy after a lease has expired ... y tenancy at will unlawful detainer
tax costs :: n. a motion to contest a claim for court costs sub ... sts" to avoid paying these charges.
tax :: n. a governmental assessment (charge) upon propert ... unified estate and gift tax use tax
surrogate :: n. 1) a person acting on behalf of another or a su ... or probates, estates and adoptions.
surrender :: v. 1) to turn over possession of real property, ei ... lf up to law enforcement officials.
surrebutal :: n. in written or oral legal argument, the response ... h until the judge stops the debate.
surplusage :: n. a term used in analyzing legal documents and pl ... ect and, therefore, can be ignored.
surrogate court :: n. a court in a few states (including New York) wi ... er probates, estates and adoptions.
survivor :: n. a person who outlives another, as in "to my son ... are alive they are both survivors.
tangible property :: n. physical articles (things) as distinguished fro ... operty personal property personalty
syndicate :: n. a joint venture among individuals and/or corpor ... l dissolve. See also: joint venture
swear :: v. 1) to declare under oath that one will tell the ... ee also: notary public oath perjury
sustain :: v. in trial practice, for a judge to agree that an ... /she will "overrule" the objection.
sublease :: n. the lease to another of all or a portion of pre ... and sublease. See also: lease rent
subject to :: adj. referring to the acquisition of title to real ... : assumption deed of trust mortgage
specific performance :: n. the right of a party to a contract to demand th ... artwork. See also: contract prayer
specific finding :: n. a decision on a fact made by a jury in its verd ... so forth. See also: special verdict
special prosecutor :: n. an attorney from outside of the government sele ... Robert Bork finally discharged Cox.
special master :: n. a person appointed by the court to carry out an ... ting to the judge. See also: master
speculative damages :: n. possible financial loss or expenses claimed by ... future customers. See also: damages
speedy trial :: n. in criminal prosecutions, the right of a defend ... hurt by the waiver. See also: trial
spousal support :: n. payment for support of an ex-spouse (or a spous ... but two. See also: alimony divorce
spot zoning :: n. a provision in a general plan which benefits a ... . See also: grandfathered in zoning
spontaneous exclamation :: n. a sudden statement caused by the speaker having ... et hit the girl." See also: hearsay
spendthrift clause :: n. a provision in a trust or will that states that ... tly to Junior. See also: trust will
special damages :: n. damages claimed and/or awarded in a lawsuit whi ... . See also: damages general damages
special appearance :: n. the representation by an attorney of a person i ... anged. See also: general appearance
solicitor :: n. an English attorney who may perform all legal s ... s or barristers. See also: attorney
solicitation :: n. the crime of encouraging or inducing another to ... xual acts for pay. See also: pander
sodomy :: n. anal copulation by a man inserting his penis in ... tiality). See also: bestiality rape
small claims court :: n. a division of most municipal, city or other low ... od example of a small claims court.
Solicitor General :: n. the chief trial attorney in the federal Departm ... Attorney General in the Department.
solitary confinement :: n. the placement of a prisoner in a federal or sta ... as "cruel and unusual punishment."
special administrator :: n. a person appointed by the court in a probate pr ... or administrator. See also: probate
special :: adj. referring to a particular purpose, person or ... rator, master, orders and so forth.
speaking demurrer :: n. an attempt to introduce evidence during a heari ... the operation." See also: demurrer
sounds in :: adj. referring to the underlying legal basis for a ... ause of action sounds in contract."
springing interest :: n. a future right to title to real property create ... lso: future interest interest title
star chamber proceedings :: n. any judicial or quasi-judicial action, trial or ... ate 1960s. See also: kangaroo court
straw man :: n. 1) a person to whom title to property or a busi ... a trail will mislead hunting dogs).
stock option :: n. the right to purchase stock in the future at a ... hares. See also: option share stock
stock in trade :: n. the inventory of merchandise held for sale. ... ntory of merchandise held for sale.
stock certificate :: n. printed document which states the name, incorpo ... . See also: corporation share stock
street :: n. a roadway in an urban area, owned and maintaine ... A private road cannot be a street.
strict construction :: (narrow construction) n. interpreting the Constitu ... See also: constitution construction
subcontractor :: n. a person or business which has a contract (as a ... ependent contractor mechanic's lien
subchapter S corporation :: n. the choice by a small corporation to be treated ... ing attorney. See also: corporation
strike :: 1) v. to remove a statement from the record of the ... ing the business, factory or store.
strict liability :: n. automatic responsibility (without having to pro ... bility negligence res ipsa loquitur
stock :: 1) n. inventory (goods) of a business meant for sa ... siness. See also: share shareholder
stipulation :: n. an agreement, usually on a procedural matter, b ... g, signed and filed with the court.
status conference :: n. a pre-trial meeting of attorneys before a judge ... g a trial date. See also: discovery
state of domicile :: n. the state in which a person has his/her permane ... orated. See also: domicile resident
state :: n. 1) the federal or state government and any of i ... d States. 3) a nation's government.
stare decisis :: : (stah-ree duh-sigh-sis) n. Latin for "to stand b ... pellate court lower court precedent
statute :: n. a federal or state written law enacted by the C ... and proclamations are not statutes.
statute of frauds :: n. law in every state which requires that certain ... ulent title claims. See also: fraud
stay away order :: n. a court order that a person may not come near a ... also: peace bond restraining order
statutory rape :: n. sexual intercourse with a female below the lega ... majority minority molestation rape
statutory offer of settlement :: n. a written offer of a specific sum of money made ... ly awarded to the prevailing party.
statute of limitations :: n. a law which sets the maximum period which one c ... ies. See also: demurrer laches toll
tenant :: n. a person who occupies real property owned by an ... rental payments. See also: tenancy
testamentary capacity :: n. having the mental competency to execute a will ... lso: competent undue influence will
voluntary bankruptcy :: n. the filing for bankruptcy by a debtor who belie ... kruptcy court. See also: bankruptcy
voting trust :: n. a trust which solicits vote proxies of sharehol ... ation proxy shareholder stockholder
voir dire :: (vwahr [with a near-silent "r"] deer) n. from Fren ... t witness jury peremptory challenge
void for vagueness :: adj. referring to a statute defining a crime which ... o the states by the 14th Amendment.
void :: adj. referring to a statute, contract, ruling or a ... udgment is void. See also: voidable
waiver :: n. the intentional and voluntary giving up of some ... ssed on the record. See also: waive
wanton :: adj. 1) grossly negligent to the extent of being r ... sexually immoral and unrestrained.
wet reckless :: n. a plea to a charge of reckless driving which wa ... conviction. See also: plea bargain
weight of evidence :: n. the strength, value and believability of eviden ... dence preponderance of the evidence
waste :: n. 1) any damage to real property by a tenant whic ... ch may include poisonous effluents.
ward :: n. 1) a person (usually a minor) who has a guardia ... ouncil district. See also: guardian
viz :: prep. to wit, or namely. Example: "There were seve ... d broken windows." See also: to wit
vigilante :: n. someone who takes the law into his/her own hand ... lester of her child is a vigilante.
variance :: n. 1) an exception to a zoning ordinance, authoriz ... process." See also: dismissal proof
vagrancy :: n. moving about without a means to support oneself ... ue of "loitering." See also: loiter
vacate :: v. 1) for a judge to set aside or annul an order o ... of real estate and cease occupancy.
uxor :: n. Latin for "wife." In deeds and documents the te ... man and not worthy of being named.
venue :: n. 1) the proper or most convenient location for t ... ion. See also: forum non conveniens
verdict :: n. the decision of a jury after a trial, which mus ... nt quotient verdict special verdict
vicarious liability :: n. sometimes called "imputed liability," attachmen ... r or policeman. See also: liability
vexatious litigation :: n. filing a lawsuit with the knowledge that it has ... lous malicious prosecution sanction
vest :: v. to give an absolute right to title or ownership ... . See also: vested vested remainder
verification :: n. the declaration under oath or upon penalty of p ... ed. See also: answer complaint oath
whiplash :: n. a common neck and/or back injury suffered in au ... r damages due to negligent driving.
white collar crime :: n. a generic term for crimes involving commercial ... committed by "blue collar" workers.
zoning :: n. a system of developing a city or county plan in ... овской гарантии . youthful offenders :: n. under-age people accused of crimes who are proc ... alty. See also: juvenile delinquent
wrongful termination :: n. a right of an employee to sue his/her employer ... ing an employee's grounds for suit.
wrongful death :: n. the death of a human being as the result of a w ... ual beneficiaries (family members).
seized :: (seised) n. 1) having ownership, commonly used in ... by force. See also: seisin seizure
breach :: 1) n. literally, a break. A breach may be a failur ... breach of trust breach of warranty
official :: 1) adj. referring to an act, document or anything ... tion or business. See also: officer
implied :: adj., adv. referring to circumstances, conduct or ... nt implied consent implied warranty
hot pursuit :: n. when a law enforcement officer is so close behi ... sh pursuit. See also: fresh pursuit
fresh pursuit :: n. immediate chase of a suspected criminal by a la ... hot pursuit. See also: hot pursuit
World Court :: n. the Court of International Justice, founded by ... rd and to be bound by the decision.
Workers' Compensation Acts :: n. state statutes which establish liability of emp ... rs' compensation insurance company.
will :: n. a written document which leaves the estate of t ... will and testament probate testator
widow's election :: n. the choice a widow makes between accepting what ... nt and distribution succession will
widower :: n. a man whose wife died while he was married to h ... d to her and who has not remarried.
widow :: n. a woman whose husband died while she was marrie ... nefits traceable to the ex-husband.
will contest :: n. a lawsuit challenging the validity of a will an ... so: in terrorem clause probate will
willful :: adj. referring to acts which are intentional, cons ... r was willful." See also: willfully
witness :: 1) n. a person who testifies under oath in a trial ... lso: deposition evidence trial will
wiretap :: n. using an electronic device to listen in on tele ... invasion of privacy probable cause
winding up :: n. liquidating the assets of a corporation or part ... ration cy pres doctrine partnership
willfully :: adv. referring to doing something intentionally, p ... on the property." See also: willful
usury :: n. a rate of interest on a debt which is exorbitan ... al Reserve Bank. See also: usurious
unlawful detainer :: n. 1) keeping possession of real property without ... Thirty-day notice three-day notice
trade :: 1) n. a business or occupation for profit, particu ... rade fixture trade secret trademark
tort claims act :: n. a federal or state act which, under certain con ... . See also: Federal Tort Claims Act
tort :: n. from French for "wrong," a civil wrong or wrong ... nce slander trespass wrongful death
tools of trade :: n. in bankruptcy law, the equipment a person requi ... pay creditors. See also: bankruptcy
trade name :: n. a name of a business or one of its products whi ... t is different. See also: trademark
trade secret :: n. a process, method, plan, formula or other infor ... e invention. See also: patent trade
transfer agent :: n. a person or company retained by a corporation t ... stockbroker. See also: share stock
transcript :: n. the written record of all proceedings, includin ... unless transcription is requested.
trader :: in U.S. income tax law, a person who deals in prop ... ultation with a C.P.A. or attorney.
trademark :: n. a distinctive design, picture, emblem, logo or ... ing trademark. See also: trade name
tontine :: n. a rare agreement among several persons who agre ... e the remaining assets and profits.
toll :: v. 1) to delay, suspend or hold off the effect of ... bridge or take passage on a ferry.
Thirty-day notice :: n. a notice by a landlord to a tenant on a month-t ... e also: landlord and tenant service
third-party beneficiary :: n. a person who is not a party to a contract but h ... tract as a third-party beneficiary.
theft :: n. the generic term for all crimes in which a pers ... rglary embezzlement larceny robbery
testamentary trust :: n. a trust created by the terms of a will. Example ... vivos trust living trust trust will
three strikes, you're out :: n. recent (beginning 1994) legislation enacted in ... ich involve small amounts of money.
three-day notice :: n. a notice to pay delinquent rent or quit (leave ... nd tenant service unlawful detainer
to wit :: prep. that is to say. Example: "the passengers in ... tty Bumgartner and Sherry Younger."
title report :: n. the written analysis of the status of title to ... lso: abstract title title insurance
time served :: n. the period a criminal defendant has been in jai ... o the defendant. See also: sentence
time is of the essence :: n. a phrase often used in contracts which in effec ... g the agreement. See also: contract
transferred intent :: n. in both criminal and tort (civil wrong) law, wh ... hit upon Truehart. See also: intent
treason :: n. the crime of betraying one's country, defined i ... nment. See also: espionage sedition
under the influence :: n. one of many phrases for being drunk on alcoholi ... See also: driving while intoxicated
unconscionable :: adj. referring to a contract or bargain which is s ... ee also: adhesion contract contract
ultra vires :: (uhl-trah veye-rehz) adj. Latin for "beyond powers ... it is issued. See also: corporation
ultimate fact :: n. in a trial, a conclusion of fact which is logic ... is not evidence. See also: evidence
undivided interest :: n. title to real property held by two or more pers ... y by the entirety tenancy in common
undue influence :: n. the amount of pressure which one uses to force ... ounder. See also: will will contest
unjust enrichment :: n. a benefit by chance, mistake or another's misfo ... perty. See also: constructive trust
unissued stock :: n. a corporation's shares of stock which are autho ... poration share stock treasury stock
unilateral contract :: n. an agreement to pay in exchange for performance ... consideration contract performance
unfair competition :: n. wrongful and/or fraudulent business methods to ... ctices tend to harm one's business.
Twinkie defense :: n. a claim by a criminal defendant that at the tim ... rder. See also: diminished capacity
turn states' evidence :: v. for a person accused of a crime to decide to gi ... recommendation of a light sentence.
trial :: n. the examination of facts and law presided over ... at a hearing held at a later time.
trespass :: n. entering another person's property without perm ... for an illegal purpose is a crime.
treaty :: n. a pact between nations which, if entered into b ... ation and not enforceable treaties.
treasury stock :: n. stock of a private corporation which was issued ... be entitled. See also: share stock
triple net lease :: n. a lease in which the lessee's (tenant's) rent i ... ers and malls. See also: lease rent
true bill :: n. the written decision of a Grand Jury (signed by ... to the court. See also: indictment
Truth in Lending Act :: n. a federal statute which requires a commercial l ... erms and cancel the loan agreement.
trustee in bankruptcy :: n. a person appointed by a bankruptcy court to sup ... f the debtors. See also: bankruptcy
trustee :: n. a person or entity who holds the assets (corpus ... es. See also: settlor trust trustor
trust fund :: n. the principal (called the corpus) of a trust, m ... ccumulated profits. See also: trust
situs :: n. Latin for "location," be it where the crime or ... place or where the building stands.
sine qua non :: (see-nay kwah nahn) prep. Latin for "without which ... qua non of the injury to Playmate.
recovery :: n. the amount of money and any other right or prop ... ceived by a plaintiff in a lawsuit.
redeem :: v. to buy back, as when an owner who had mortgaged ... so: foreclosure mortgage redemption
recoverable :: adj. referring to the amount of money to which a p ... ehicle." See also: damages judgment
recourse :: n. the right to demand payment to the writer of a ... e. See also: bill of exchange check
recoupment :: n. the right of a defendant in a lawsuit to demand ... ter, including outside the lawsuit.
redemption :: n. the act of redeeming, buying back property by p ... ts of foreclosure. See also: redeem
reentry :: n. taking back possession and going into real prop ... ages. See also: landlord and tenant
register :: n. in corporations, the record of shareholders, an ... corporation. See also: corporation
refresh one's memory :: v. to use a document, exhibit or previous testimon ... it is genuine). See also: testimony
reformation :: n. the correction or change of an existing documen ... neral partner sues for reformation.
referee :: n. a person to whom a judge refers a case to take ... on such findings. See also: master
records :: n. in business, particularly corporations, all the ... s to the "records" of the business.
record :: 1) v. (ree-cored) to put a document into the offic ... eeding race to the courthouse trial
receiver :: n. 1) a neutral person (often a professional trust ... owing they were obtained illegally.
receipt :: n. a written and signed acknowledgment by the reci ... the estate of someone who has died.
reasonable reliance :: n. particularly in contracts, what a prudent perso ... the following:." See also: contract
reasonable doubt :: n. not being sure of a criminal defendant's guilt ... also: preponderance of the evidence
receivership :: n. the process of appointment by a court of a rece ... n receivership." See also: receiver
recess :: n. a break in a trial or other court proceedings o ... t," which winds up the proceedings.
reconveyance :: n. in those states which use deeds of trust as a m ... conveyance. See also: deed of trust
reckless driving :: n. operation of an automobile in a dangerous manne ... it. See also: reckless wet reckless
reckless :: adj. in both negligence and criminal cases, carele ... so: careless negligent wet reckless
jury :: n. one of the remarkable innovations of the Englis ... hallenge sequester venire voir dire
registration statement :: n. a detailed report to be filed with the Securiti ... See also: blue sky laws prospectus
registry of deeds :: n. the records of land title documents kept by the ... mployee to locate. See also: record
reports :: n. the published decisions of appeals courts in al ... ilable in almost all law libraries.
repair :: v. to restore to former condition or in some contr ... tching to temporarily halt leaking.
renunciation :: n. 1) giving up a right, such as a right of inheri ... renunciation is factually too late.
rental value :: n. the amount which would be paid for rental of si ... alimony to be paid. See also: rent
reprieve :: n. a temporary delay in imposition of the death pe ... commutation of sentence or pardon.
repudiation :: n. denial of the existence of a contract and/or re ... also: anticipatory breach contract
res gestae :: (rayz jest-tie) n. from Latin for "things done," i ... n those circumstances are reliable.
requirements contract :: n. a contract between a supplier (or manufacturer) ... produces. See also: output contract
request :: 1) v. to ask or demand a judge to act (such as iss ... n. the act of asking or demanding.
reputation :: n. a person's good name, honor or what the communi ... See also: defamation libel slander
rent :: 1) v. to hire an object or real property for a per ... ice. See also: lease month-to-month
remote :: adj., adv. extremely far off or slight. Evidence m ... ee also: immaterial proximate cause
release on one's own recognizance :: v. for a judge to allow a criminal defendant pre-t ... ourtroom slang. See also: bail O.R.
rejection of claim :: n. in probate law (administration of an estate of ... stion of administrative remedies").
rehearing :: n. conducting a hearing again based on the motion ... the judge or agency was just wrong.
regulations :: n. rules and administrative codes issued by govern ... es usually have similar procedures.
relevant :: adj. having some reasonable connection with, and i ... nt." See also: irrelevant objection
reliction :: n. gradual change of water line on real property w ... more dry land. See also: accretion
remittitur :: n. 1) a judge's order reducing a judgment awarded ... party on appeal). See also: remand
remedy :: n. the means to achieve justice in any matter in w ... gment provisional remedy settlement
remainder :: n. in real property law, the interest in real prop ... ed reversion title vested remainder
relief :: n. generic term for all types of benefits which an ... r possibilities. See also: judgment
reasonable care :: n. the degree of caution and concern for the safet ... . See also: duty of care negligence
reasonable :: adj., adv. in law, just, rational, appropriate, or ... ost of other actions or activities.
public domain :: n. 1) in copyright law, the right of anyone to use ... al governments. See also: copyright
public defender :: n. an elected or appointed public official (usuall ... to convicted indigents for appeals.
public charge :: n. a general term for an indigent, sick or severel ... be taken care of at public expense.
public benefit corporation :: n. a term used in some states for a nonprofit comm ... ts and Lions. See also: corporation
public easement :: n. the right of the general public to use certain ... lso: easement prescriptive easement
public figure :: n. in the law of defamation (libel and slander), a ... See also: defamation libel slander
public use :: n. the only purpose for which private property can ... e also: condemnation eminent domain
public trust doctrine :: n. the principle that the government holds title t ... interest has been dubious at best.
public record :: n. any information, minutes, files, accounts or ot ... l judgment are both public records.
public property :: n. property owned by the government or one of its ... l public. See also: common property
public administrator :: n. a county official with the responsibility to ha ... ian is available. See also: probate
public :: 1) n. the people of the nation, state, county, dis ... lands and public and private roads.
prostitute :: n. a person who receives payment for sexual interc ... also: pander panderer prostitution
prospectus :: n. a detailed statement by a corporation required ... rporation limited partnership stock
prosecution :: n. 1) in criminal law, the government attorney cha ... se). See also: prosecute prosecutor
prosecute :: v. 1) in criminal law, to charge a person with a c ... rney General prosecution prosecutor
prostitution :: n. the profession of performing sexual acts for mo ... so: pander panderer pimp prostitute
protective custody :: n. the act of law enforcement officials in placing ... ical harm or death if they testify.
proxy :: n. 1) someone who is authorized to serve in one's ... d members and convention delegates.
proximate cause :: n. a happening which results in an event, particul ... also: intervening cause negligence
prove :: v. to present evidence and/or logic that makes a f ... t or criminal case. See also: proof
protest :: 1) v. to complain in some public way about any act ... dishonored (not paid by the bank).
public utility :: n. any organization which provides services to the ... nder state laws. See also: monopoly
publication :: n. 1) anything made public by print (as in a news- ... so: defamation libel notice slander
rape :: 1) n. the crime of sexual intercourse (with actual ... See also: date rape statutory rape
ransom :: 1) n. money paid to a kidnapper in demand for the ... ive. See also: abduction kidnapping
race to the courthouse :: n. slang for the rule that the first deed, deed of ... e also: deed judgment lien mortgage
quotient verdict :: n. an award of money damages set by a jury in a la ... rial motion for a new trial verdict
ratification :: n. confirmation of an action which was not pre-app ... mployee). See also: agent principal
ratify :: v. to confirm and adopt the act of another even th ... ligation. See also: agent principal
real property :: n. 1) all land, structures, firmly attached and in ... onal property real estate reversion
real estate investment trust :: n. nicknamed REIT, a real estate investment organi ... its upon sale-if there is a profit.
real estate :: n. land, improvements and buildings thereon, inclu ... the future. See also: real property
rational basis :: n. a test of constitutionality of a statute, askin ... imate and constitutional objective.
quorum :: n. the number of people required to be present bef ... ly set by statute. See also: bylaws
quiet title action :: n. a lawsuit to establish a party's title to real ... opposition. See also: notice title
quantum meruit :: : (kwahn-tuhm mare-ooh-it) n. Latin for "as much a ... uit by implying a contract existed.
putative :: adj. commonly believed, supposed or claimed. Thus ... not the last will of the deceased.
punitive damages :: n. (synony- mous with exemplary damages), damages ... t acts. See also: exemplary damages
puffing :: n. the exaggeration of the good points of a produc ... seller is possible. See also: fraud
quasi :: : (kway-zeye, kwah-zee) adj., adv. from Latin for ... ve to be treated "as if" they were.
quasi community property :: n. in community property states, property acquired ... : community property palimony quasi
quiet enjoyment :: n. the right to enjoy and use premises (particular ... damages for it. See also: nuisance
question of law :: n. an issue arising in a lawsuit or criminal prose ... udge question of fact trier of fact
Queen's Bench :: n. 1) the highest court in Great Britain during th ... include close to 50 percent women.
quasi-criminal :: adj. a reference to a court's right to punish for ... defendant. See also: criminal quasi
res ipsa loquitur :: (rayz ip-sah loh-quit-her) n. Latin for "the thing ... plex doctrine. See also: negligence
rescind :: v. to cancel a contract, putting the parties back ... celling party. See also: rescission
service :: n. 1) paid work by another person, either by contr ... ersonal services service of process
service by mail :: n. mailing legal pleadings to opposing attorneys o ... attorney by mail. See also: service
servant :: n. an employee of an employer, technically one who ... ndent contractor master and servant
separation agreement :: n. an agreement between two married people who hav ... divorce legal separation separation
separate property :: n. in community property states (California, Texas ... pouse. See also: community property
service by publication :: n. serving a summons or other legal document in a ... perty. See also: service of process
service of process :: n. the delivery of copies of legal documents such ... by publication substituted service
settlement :: n. the resolution of a lawsuit (or of a legal disp ... ult in settlement. See also: settle
settle :: v. to resolve a lawsuit without a final court judg ... rior to trial. See also: settlement
setoff :: (offset) n. a claim by a defendant in a lawsuit th ... ee also: affirmative defense offset
servient estate :: n. real property which has an easement or other us ... See also: dominant estate easement
sentence :: 1) n. the punishment given to a person convicted o ... ence restitution suspended sentence
sell :: v. to transfer possession and ownership of goods o ... of equivalent value. See also: sale
security deposit :: n. a payment required by a landlord from a tenant ... lso: landlord and tenant lease rent
securities :: n. generic term for shares of stock, bonds and deb ... ee also: bond debenture share stock
secret rebate :: n. a kickback of money by a business to a "preferr ... h a secret rebate. See also: rebate
secondary boycott :: n. an organized refusal to purchase the products o ... state laws and, thus, are illegal.
seduction :: n. the use of charm, salesmanship, promises, gifts ... ry breach of promise date rape rape
seisin :: (sees-in) n. an old feudal term for having both po ... perty). See also: fee simple seized
self-serving :: adj. referring to a question asked of a party to a ... ng declaration. See also: objection
self-help :: n. 1) obtaining relief or enforcing one's rights w ... maximizing of one's opportunities.
self-executing :: adj. immediately effective without further action, ... party the right to try to collect.
self-dealing :: n. in the stock market, using secret "inside" info ... ederal Securities and Exchange Act.
settlor :: n. the person who creates a trust by a written tru ... the trust. See also: trust trustor
severable contract :: n. an agreement which is made up of several separa ... e also: breach of contract contract
shortening time :: n. an order of the court in response to the motion ... e notice is served within 24 hours.
short cause :: n. a lawsuit which is estimated by the parties (us ... l be reset later as a "long cause."
shifting the burden of proof :: n. the result of the plaintiff in a lawsuit meetin ... o: burden of proof prima facie case
shield laws :: n. statutes enacted in some states which declare t ... See also: privileged communication
show cause order :: n. an order of the court, also called an order to ... hild. See also: order to show cause
sidebar :: n. 1) physically, an area in front of or next to t ... See also: approach the bench bench
simultaneous death act :: n. a statute in effect in most states which provid ... See also: descent and distribution
simple trust :: n. a trust which requires that all income be distr ... nd not accumulated. See also: trust
similarly situated :: adj. with the same problems and circumstances, ref ... class action multiplicity of suits
silent partner :: n. a non-legal term for an investor who puts money ... partner limited partnership partner
sheriff's sale :: n. an auction sale of property held by the sheriff ... so: execution forced sale levy writ
sheriff :: n. the top law enforcement officer for a county, u ... ." See also: bailiff sheriff's sale
sexual harassment :: n. unwanted sexual approaches (including touching, ... emale employees. See also: nuisance
sex offender :: n. generic term for all persons convicted of crime ... pornography rape sexual harassment
severance :: n. 1) a separating by court order, such as separat ... le a potential claim for discharge.
several liability :: n. referring to responsibility of one party for th ... n joint and several promissory note
shall :: v. 1) an imperative command as in "you shall not k ... andatory, depending on the context.
shareholder :: n. the owner of one or more shares of stock in a c ... : corporation shareholders' meeting
Shepardize :: n. a method of locating reports of appeals decisio ... m prior case law. See also: reports
sharp practice :: n. actions by a lawyer using misleading statements ... e bar association or by the courts.
shareholders' meeting :: n. a meeting, usually annual, of all shareholders ... ctors corporation proxy shareholder
shareholders' derivative action :: n. a lawsuit by a corporation's shareholders, theo ... gement. See also: derivative action
sealing of records :: n. trial records and decisions which a judge order ... eep the terms from public scrutiny.
sealed verdict :: n. the decision of a jury when there is a delay in ... reconvenes. See also: jury verdict
retainer :: n. the advance payment to an attorney for services ... e stuck with extensive unpaid fees.
resulting trust :: n. a trust implied by law (as determined by a cour ... See also: constructive trust trust
restrictive covenant :: n. 1) an agreement included in a deed to real prop ... o: covenant that runs with the land
restriction :: n. any limitation on activity, by statute, regulat ... rated into the title of each owner.
retire :: v. 1) to stop working at one's occupation. 2) to p ... y instructions have been completed.
retraction :: n. 1) to withdraw any legal document in a lawsuit ... igation. See also: defamation libel
reversal :: n. the decision of a court of appeal ruling that t ... e of damages is ordered to dismiss.
revenue ruling :: n. a published opinion of the Internal Revenue Ser ... evenue ruling. See also: income tax
return of service :: n. written confirmation under oath by a process se ... ee also: service service of process
retroactive :: adj. referring to a court's decision or a statute ... ospective." See also: ex post facto
restraint on alienation :: n. an attempt in a deed or will to prevent the sal ... enant rule against perpetuities use
restraint of trade :: n. in antitrust law, any activity (including agree ... also: antitrust laws monopoly trust
residue :: n. in a will, the assets of the estate of a person ... distribution residuary bequest will
residence :: n. 1) the place where one makes his/her home. Howe ... f incorporation. See also: resident
reservation :: n. a provision in a deed which keeps (reserves) to ... reserves lot 5." See also: reserve
rescue doctrine :: n. the rule of law that if a rescuer of a person h ... to the car grill. See also: damages
resisting arrest :: n. the crime of using physical force (no matter ho ... referred to merely as "resisting."
resolution :: n. a determination of policy of a corporation by t ... nactment of statutes or ordinances.
restitution :: n. 1) returning to the proper owner property or th ... her a shorter sentence than normal.
Restatement of the Law :: n. a series of detailed statements of the basic la ... tracts, property, torts and trusts.
respondent :: n. 1) the party who is required to answer a petiti ... "appellant") in the appeals court.
respondeat superior :: (rehs-pond-dee-at superior) n. Latin for "let the ... : agency agent negligence principal
reversion :: n. in real property, the return to the grantor or ... lled "reverter." See also: reverter
review :: n. the judicial consideration of a lower court jud ... ate court reversal reversible error
sale :: n. transfer of something (and title to it) in retu ... contract forced sale sheriff's sale
running at large :: adj. 1) referring to cattle or other animals which ... om an entire city, county or state.
rules of court :: n. a set of procedural regulations adopted by cour ... s counsel. See also: procedure rule
rule against perpetuities :: n. the legal prohibition against tying up property ... . See also: restraint on alienation
sanction :: n. 1) a financial penalty imposed by a judge on a ... ction." See also: contempt of court
satisfaction :: n. receiving payment or performance of what is due ... n contract satisfaction of judgment
seal :: n. a device which creates an impression upon paper ... e "sealed," but that is rare today.
scope of employment :: n. actions of an employee which further the busine ... ter and servant respondeat superior
scienter :: n. Latin for "having knowledge." In criminal law, ... ents were lies and thus fraudulent.
satisfaction of judgment :: n. a document signed by a judgment creditor (the p ... ord. See also: abstract of judgment
rule :: 1) v. to decide a legal question, by a court, as i ... ee also: regulations rules of court
royalty :: n. a percentage of gross or net profit or a fixed ... also: copyright infringement patent
rights :: n. 1) plural of right, which is the collection of ... evidence. See also: Miranda warning
right of way :: n. 1) a pathway or road with a specific descriptio ... s easement egress floating easement
revoke :: v. to annul or cancel an act, particularly a state ... oke a license. See also: revocation
revival :: n. 1) requesting a court to reinstate the force of ... e of limitations (the time to sue).
riot :: n. 1) technically a turbulent and violent disturba ... to unlawful possession of firearms.
riparian rights :: n. the right of the owner of the land forming the ... elled away from its natural course.
robbery :: n. 1) the direct taking of property (including mon ... We've been robbed." See also: theft
roadside test :: n. a preliminary test law enforcement officers use ... g while intoxicated Miranda warning
risk :: n. chances of danger or loss, particularly of prop ... so: assumption of risk risk of loss
ripe :: adj. in constitutional law, referring to a law cas ... or more issues raised by the case.
property tax :: n. an annual governmental tax on real property or ... are made. See also: ad valorem tax
insider trading :: n. the use of confidential information about a bus ... o catch insiders. See also: insider
claim against an estate :: n. upon the death of a person and beginning of pro ... ade to the heirs. See also: probate
claim in bankruptcy :: n. the written claim filed by persons or businesse ... : bankruptcy bankruptcy proceedings
claim against a governmental agency :: n. any time one believes he/she has a right to pay ... orter than other types of lawsuits.
claim :: 1) v. to make a demand for money, for property, or ... the government, it is lawsuit time.
civil procedure :: n. the complex and often confusing body of rules a ... l civil action civil code civil law
class action :: n. a lawsuit filed by one or more people on behalf ... ees usually require court approval.
clear title :: n. holding ownership of real property without any ... s which might affect the ownership.
cloud on title (cloud) :: n. an actual or apparent outstanding claim on the ... ion reconveyance title title report
closing argument :: n. the final argument by an attorney on behalf of ... . See also: opening statement trial
closing :: n. the final step in the sale and purchase of real ... company, escrow holder or attorney.
close corporation :: n. a corporation which is permitted by state law t ... mily members. See also: corporation
civil liberties :: n. rights or freedoms given to the people by the F ... nment. See also: civil civil rights
civil law :: n. 1) a body of laws and legal concepts which come ... generic term for non-criminal law.
circuit courts :: n. a movable court in which the judge holds court ... alled the Circuit Courts of Appeal.
churning :: n. the unethical and usually illegal practice of e ... f obtaining high sales commissions.
child support :: n. court-ordered funds to be paid by one parent to ... ild custody divorce spousal support
child :: n. 1) a person's natural offspring. 2) a person 14 ... almost all states. See also: minor
circumstantial evidence :: n. evidence in a trial which is not directly from ... circumstantial. See also: evidence
cite :: v. 1) to make reference to a decision in another c ... police officer). See also: citation
civil code :: n. in many states, the name for the collection of ... negligence lawsuits and practices.
civil calendar :: n. the list of lawsuits (cases) that are approachi ... y sent to trial. See also: calendar
civil action :: n. any lawsuit relating to civil matters and not c ... inal prosecution. See also: lawsuit
citizen :: n. person who by place of birth, nationality of on ... look this duality of nationalities.
code :: n. a collection of written laws gathered together, ... utes or laws. See also: law statute
Code of Professional Responsibility :: n. a set of rules governing the ethical conduct of ... de has been adopted by most states.
commission :: n. 1) a fee paid based on a percentage of the sale ... on or the Federal Trade Commission.
commingling :: n. the act of mixing the funds belonging to one pa ... rust accounts for funds of another.
commercial law :: n. all the law which applies to the rights, relati ... . See also: Uniform Commercial Code
commercial frustration :: n. an unforeseen uncontrollable event which occurs ... rustration of purpose impossibility
common area :: n. in condominium and some cooperative housing pro ... tage of total store space occupied.
common carrier :: n. an individual, a company or a public utility (l ... -time-only event. See also: carrier
common stock :: n. stock in a corporation in which dividends (payo ... oration preferred stock share stock
common property :: n. 1) real property owned by "tenants in common," ... e, like parks and national forests.
common law :: n. the traditional unwritten law of England, based ... plied without reference to statute.
common counts :: n. claims for debt alleged in a lawsuit (included ... so: cause of action complaint count
comment :: n. a statement made by a judge or an attorney duri ... e rung, cannot be unrung," applies.
commencement of action :: n. an action (a lawsuit) commences (begins officia ... ing a complaint. See also: petition
coinsurance :: n. an insurance policy in which the insurance comp ... e insurance company share the risk.
cohabitation :: n. living together in the same residence, generall ... xual relationships as cohabitation.
codify :: v. to arrange and label a system of laws. ... arrange and label a system of laws.
codicil :: n. a written amendment to a person's will, which m ... the writer. See also: probate will
collateral descendant :: n. a relative descended from a brother or sister o ... See also: descent and distribution
collusion :: n. where two persons (or business entities through ... seball team owners. See also: fraud
comity :: n. when one court defers to the jurisdiction of an ... of cases to which comity may apply.
comaker :: n. when two or more people sign a check or a promi ... amount to be paid. See also: maker
color of title :: n. the appearance of having title to personal or r ... rty based on this "color of title."
color of law :: n. the appearance of an act being performed based ... xtort payoffs to forget the ticket.
Chief Justice :: n. the presiding judge of any State Supreme Court ... nks of existing Associate Justices.
chattel mortgage :: n. an outmoded written document which made a chatt ... ed by the property. See also: UCC-1
capital offense :: n. any criminal charge which is punishable by the ... . See also: bail capital punishment
capital punishment :: n. execution (death) for a capital offense. The U. ... or death. See also: capital offense
capital gains :: n. the difference between the sales price and the ... so: basis delayed exchange exchange
capital expenditure :: n. payment by a business for basic assets such as ... y intended to improve productivity.
capital assets :: n. equipment, property, and funds owned by a busin ... . See also: capital capital account
capitalization :: n. 1) the act of counting anticipated earnings and ... for conversion into capital assets.
capricious :: adv., adj. unpredictable and subject to whim, ofte ... a judge is inconsistent or erratic.
carrier :: n. in general, any person or business which transp ... lso: common carrier private carrier
carnal knowledge :: n. from Latin carnalis for "fleshly:" sexual inter ... tate. See also: rape statutory rape
care :: n. in law, to be attentive, prudent and vigilant. ... she is involved. See also: careless
caption :: n. the first section of any written legal pleading ... to the exact format of the caption.
capital :: 1) n. from Latin for caput, meaning "head," the ba ... count capital assets stock in trade
canon law :: n. laws and regulations over ecclesiastical (churc ... nduct with no religious connection.
bylaws :: n. the written rules for conduct of a corporation, ... d/or amended. See also: corporation
but for rule :: n. one of several tests to determine if a defendan ... e damage. See also: proximate cause
burglary :: n. the crime of breaking and entering into a struc ... le. See also: breaking and entering
burden of proof :: n. the requirement that the plaintiff (the party b ... ence prima facie weight of evidence
C.I.F. :: n. the total of cost, insurance and freight charge ... aid on goods purchased and shipped.
calendar :: 1) n. the list of cases to be called for trial bef ... clerk of the court calendars cases.
caning :: n. a punishment for crimes employed in certain Asi ... last century in the United States.
cancel :: v. to cross out, annul, destroy, void and/or resci ... g, so that it cannot be used again.
calumny :: n. the intentional and generally vicious false acc ... 's reputation. See also: defamation
call :: n. the demand by a corporation that a stockholder ... assessment on shares already owned.
carryback :: n. in taxation accounting, using a current tax yea ... tax liability. See also: carryover
carrying on business :: v. pursuing a particular occupation on a continuou ... visible business "entity" as such.
change of circumstances :: n. the principal reason for a court modifying (ame ... ild support divorce spousal support
chancellor :: n. from the old English legal system, a chancellor ... n the same courts. See also: equity
champerty :: n. an agreement between the party suing in a lawsu ... . See also: barratry contingent fee
chambers :: n. the private office of a judge, usually close to ... s." See also: in camera in chambers
character witness :: n. a person who testifies in a trial on behalf of ... ases and civil cases such as fraud.
charge :: n. 1) in a criminal case, the specific statement o ... trial judge. 3) a fee for services.
chattel :: n. an item of personal property which is movable, ... ments). See also: personal property
charity :: n. 1) in general the sentiment of benevolence, doi ... . See also: charitable contribution
charitable remainder trust (Charitable Remainder Irrevocable Unitrust) :: n. a form of trust in which the donor (trustor or ... ed up or committed. See also: trust
charitable contribution :: n. in taxation, a contribution to an organization ... r the taxes paid. See also: charity
challenge for cause :: n. a request that a prospective juror be dismissed ... remptory challenge venire voir dire
challenge :: n. the right of each attorney in a jury trial to r ... ess. See also: peremptory challenge
case system :: n. the method of studying law generally used in Am ... Langdell and soon became standard.
case law :: n. reported decisions of appeals courts and other ... es. See also: case system precedent
case :: n. short for a cause of action, lawsuit, or the ri ... ny, the court stated the rule as:."
cartel :: n. 1) an arrangement among supposedly independent ... Colombia. See also: antitrust laws
casual :: adj. defining something that happens by chance, wi ... ppropriate taxes on the wages paid.
cause :: from Latin causa 1) v. to make something happen. 2 ... so: cause of action proximate cause
cestui que trust :: n. (properly pronounced ses-tee kay, but lawyers p ... ust's assets. See also: beneficiary
certiorari :: n. (sersh-oh-rare-ee) a writ (order) of a higher c ... cedents (previously decided cases).
certificate of title :: n. generally, the title document for a motor vehic ... a "pink slip." See also: pink slip
cause of action :: n. the basis of a lawsuit founded on legal grounds ... property. See also: element lawsuit
common-law marriage :: n. an agreement between a man and woman to live to ... a marriage. See also: cohabitation
community property :: n. property and profits received by a husband and ... and distribution separate property
cop a plea :: n. slang for a "plea bargain" in which an accused ... omes final). See also: plea bargain
copyright :: 1) n. the exclusive right of the author or creator ... plagiarism public domain trademark
cooperative housing :: n. an arrangement in which an association or corpo ... common area condominium cooperative
cooperative :: n. an association of individual businesses, farmer ... exes. See also: cooperative housing
convict :: 1) v. to find guilty of a crime after a trial. 2) ... ted of a felony and sent to prison.
coroner :: n. a county official with the responsibility to de ... hology. See also: forensic medicine
corporate opportunity :: n. a business opportunity which becomes known to a ... ative action fiduciary relationship
corpus juris :: n. the body of the law, meaning a compendium of al ... lanations of the law of that state.
corpus delicti :: n. (corpus dee-lick-tie) Latin for the substantial ... gon, the body of the murder victim.
corpus :: n. 1) Latin for body. 2) the principal (usually mo ... inguished from interest or profits.
corporation :: n. an organization formed with state governmental ... ation public corporation securities
conveyance :: n. a generic term for any written document which t ... r Recorder of Deeds. See also: deed
conversion :: n. a civil wrong (tort) in which one converts anot ... the crime of theft. See also: theft
contract :: 1) n. an agreement with specific terms between two ... n oral contract unilateral contract
continuance :: n. a postponement of a date of a trial, hearing or ... continuances to discourage delays.
contingent fee :: n. a fee to a lawyer which will be due and payable ... epend on the outcome are unethical.
contempt of court :: n. there are essentially two types of contempt: a) ... roduce evidence. See also: sanction
contractor :: n. 1) a person or entity that enters into a contra ... actor mechanic's lien subcontractor
contribution :: n. 1) donation to a charity or political campaign. ... f $3,000 from each of his partners.
controversy :: n. 1) disagreement, argument or quarrel. 2) a disp ... pinions. See also: advisory opinion
controlled substance :: n. a drug which has been declared by federal or st ... those who have used the substances.
control :: 1) n. the power to direct, manage, oversee and/or ... . to exercise the power of control.
contributory negligence :: n. a doctrine of common law that if a person was i ... : comparative negligence negligence
corroborate :: v. to confirm and sometimes add substantiating (re ... l. See also: corroborating evidence
cost bill :: n. a list of claimed court costs submitted by the ... also: court costs prevailing party
creditor's claim :: n. a claim required to be filed in writing, in a p ... e also: claim in bankruptcy probate
credible witness :: n. a witness whose testimony is more than likely t ... ther factors. See also: credibility
credibility :: n. whether testimony is worthy of belief, based on ... jective. See also: credible witness
court-martial :: 1) n. a military court for trying offenses in viol ... the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.
creditor's rights :: n. the field of law dealing with the legal means a ... also: creditor debt debtor judgment
crime :: n. a violation of a law in which there is injury t ... drugs. See also: felony misdemeanor
criminal calendar :: n. the list of criminal cases to be called in cour ... e plea preliminary hearing sentence
criminal attorney :: n. a popular term for an attorney who specializes ... . See also: crime felon misdemeanor
crime of passion :: n. a defendant's excuse for committing a crime due ... dant. See also: manslaughter murder
crime against nature :: n. an oldfashioned term for sodomy (anal sexual in ... states. See also: bestiality sodomy
court of law :: n. any tribunal within a judicial system. Under En ... aw. See also: chancery court equity
court of equity :: n. originally in English common law and in several ... also: chancery court of law equity
counter offer :: n. an offer made in response to a previous offer b ... it expire. See also: contract offer
count :: n. each separate statement in a complaint which st ... also: cause of action common counts
co-trustee :: n. a trustee of a trust when there is more than on ... act alone. See also: trust trustee
costs :: n. shorthand for court costs. See also: court cost ... court costs. See also: court costs
counterclaim :: n. a retaliatory claim by a defendant against a pl ... d. See also: answer cross-complaint
counterfeit :: 1) adj. describing a document, particularly money, ... d for real. See also: forgery utter
court of appeals :: n. any court (state or federal) which hears appeal ... eals courts. See also: appeal court
court costs :: n. fees for expenses that the courts pass on to at ... ee also: cost bill prevailing party
court :: n. 1) the judge, as in "The court rules in favor o ... cost and wait of full court trials.
counterpart :: n. in the law of contracts, a written paper which ... rent localities. See also: contract
contemplation of death :: n. the anticipation of death in a relatively short ... e also: unified estate and gift tax
constructive trust :: n. when a person has title to property and/or take ... tence. See also: constructive trust
condition precedent :: n. 1) in a contract, an event which must take plac ... o the property. See also: condition
condemnation action :: n. a lawsuit brought by a public agency to acquire ... e also: condemnation eminent domain
condemnation :: n. the legal process by which a governmental body ... eminent domain inverse condemnation
condemn :: v. 1) for a public agency to determine that a buil ... condemnation action eminent domain
condition subsequent :: n. 1) in a contract, a happening which terminates ... Dad Fauntleroy. See also: condition
condominium :: n. title to a unit of real property which, in real ... ium projects. See also: common area
confession of judgment :: n. a written agreement in which the defendant in a ... rms are fulfilled by the defendant.
confession :: n. the statement of one charged with a crime that ... Miranda warning self-incrimination
confess :: v. in criminal law, to voluntarily state that one ... Miranda warning self-incrimination
condone :: v. 1) to forgive, support, and/or overlook moral o ... ition that the sin is not repeated.
conclusion :: n. 1) in general, the end. 2) in a trial, when all ... onclusion of fact conclusion of law
concealment :: n. fraudulent failure to reveal information which ... lawsuit for fraud. See also: fraud
complainant :: n. a person or entity who begins a lawsuit by fili ... lso: complaint petitioner plaintiff
competent :: adj. 1) in general, able to act in the circumstanc ... all bases. See also: evidence will
comparative negligence :: n. a rule of law applied in accident cases to dete ... utory negligence damages negligence
commutation :: n. the act of reducing a criminal sentence resulti ... See also: executive clemency pardon
complaint :: n. the first document filed with the court (actual ... g prayer service of process summons
compound interest :: n. payment of interest upon principal and previous ... See also: interest promissory note
concealed weapon :: n. a weapon, particularly a handgun, which is kept ... ions, arrests or improper activity.
compromise verdict :: n. a decision made by a jury in which the jurors s ... ning the verdict. See also: verdict
compromise :: 1) n. an agreement between opposing parties to set ... some demands. See also: settlement
compound question :: n. the combination of more than one question into ... rate questions. See also: objection
confidence game :: n. the obtaining of money from others through tric ... t and confidence. See also: swindle
confidential communication :: n. certain written communications which can be kep ... privilege privileged communication
constable :: n. a law officer for a particular area such as a r ... ice of the Peace. See also: sheriff
conspiracy :: n. when people work together by agreement to commi ... d conspiracy. See also: conspirator
consortium :: n. 1) a group of separate businesses or business p ... oney terms is a difficult question.
consign :: v. 1) to deliver goods to a merchant to sell on be ... or by order of a bankruptcy judge.
constitution :: n. the fundamental, underlying document which esta ... ts common law constitutional rights
construction :: n. the act of a lawyer or court in interpreting an ... tion. See also: strict construction
constructive notice :: n. a fiction that a person got notice even though ... personally. See also: constructive
constructive fraud :: n. when the circumstances show that someone's acti ... been proven. See also: constructive
constructive eviction :: n. when the landlord does not go through a legal e ... e door shut. See also: constructive
constructive :: adj. a legal fiction for treating a situation as i ... ctive possession constructive trust
consideration :: n. 1) payment or money. 2) a vital element in the ... t of a promise). See also: contract
conservator :: n. a guardian and protector appointed by a judge t ... ies. See also: conservatee guardian
confrontation :: n. 1) fight or argument. 2) the right of a crimina ... s. See also: Bill of Rights witness
conflict of law :: n. a situation in which both state and federal law ... y arose. See also: forum preemption
conflict of interest :: n. a situation in which a person has a duty to mor ... a position adverse to the customer.
confidential relation :: n. a relationship in which one person has confiden ... remely obvious. See also: fiduciary
conjugal rights :: n. a spouse's so-called "rights" to the comforts a ... r") in a special room or apartment.
conscientious objector :: n. a person who refuses to serve in the military d ... ometimes call them "draft dodgers."
conservatee :: n. a person whom a court has determined because of ... and the like. See also: conservator
consequential damages :: n. damages claimed and/or awarded in a lawsuit whi ... See also: damages foreseeable risk
consent decree :: n. an order of a judge based upon an agreement, al ... he same. See also: consent judgment
conscious parallelism :: n. an undiscussed imitation by a business of a com ... cidence? No, conscious parallelism.
burden :: n. anything that results in a restrictive load upo ... perty to reach his home (easement).
bulk sales acts :: n. state laws (spelled out in the Uniform Commerci ... g without paying current creditors.
affirm :: v. what an appeals court does if it agrees with an ... confirms a lower court's decision.
affirmative action :: n. the process of a business or governmental agenc ... and state affirmative action laws.
affiant :: n. a person who signs an affidavit and swears to i ... lerk. See also: affidavit declarant
advisory opinion :: n. an opinion stated by a judge or a court upon th ... o: actual controversy friendly suit
adverse possession :: n. a means to acquire title to land through obviou ... o: possession prescriptive easement
affirmative defense :: n. part of an answer to a charge or complaint in w ... lp the defendant. See also: defense
affix :: v. 1) to attach something to real estate in a perm ... al, as affix a signature or a seal.
agency :: n. the relationship of a person (called the agent) ... ondeat superior scope of employment
after-discovered evidence :: n. evidence found by a losing party after a trial ... also: evidence writ of coram nobis
after-acquired title :: n. title to property acquired after the owner atte ... ed title goes automatically to Sam.
after-acquired property :: n. 1) personal or real property acquired by a debt ... lso: bankruptcy secured transaction
adverse party :: n. the opposite side in a lawsuit. Sometimes when ... the court rules the will was legal.
adultery :: n. consensual sexual relations when one of the par ... s and grist for scandal newspapers.
administrator :: n. the person appointed by the court to handle the ... e also: administer executor probate
Administrative Procedure Act :: n. the federal act which established the rules and ... strative hearing administrative law
administrative law judge :: n. a professional hearing officer who works for th ... higher pay in being called "judge."
administrative law :: n. the procedures created by administrative agenci ... judge Administrative Procedure Act
admiralty :: n. concerning activities which occur at sea, inclu ... "proctors." See also: maritime law
admissible evidence :: n. evidence which the trial judge finds is useful ... olving violence. See also: evidence
adoption :: n. the taking of a child into one's family, creati ... the child are met. See also: adopt
admit :: v. 1) to state something is true in answering a co ... tted." See also: admission evidence
admission of guilt :: n. a statement by someone accused of a crime that ... ssion guilty Miranda warning rights
admission :: n. a statement made by a party to a lawsuit or a c ... mission against interest confession
agent :: n. a person who is authorized to act for another ( ... issues. See also: agency authority
aggravated assault :: n. the crime of physically attacking another perso ... in state prison. See also: assault
amicus curiae :: n. Latin for "friend of the court," a party or an ... party's presentation to the court.
American Depository Receipt :: n. called in the banking trade an ADR, it is a rec ... ding the foreign shares themselves.
American Bar Association :: n. the largest organization of American lawyers, w ... go, IL 60611; tel.: (312) 988-5522.
amended complaint :: n. what results when the party suing (plaintiff or ... cause of action complaint demurrer
amnesty :: n. a blanket abolition of an offense by the govern ... rget the offenses. See also: pardon
amortization :: n. a periodic payment plan to pay a debt in which ... payment. See also: promissory note
anticipatory breach :: n. when a party to a contract repudiates (reneges ... perform. See also: breach contract
antenuptial (prenuptial) agreement :: n. a written contract between two people who are a ... ave been "taken" by a prior spouse.
answer :: n. in law, a written pleading filed by a defendant ... emurrer general denial verification
ancillary administration :: n. administration of an estate's assets in another ... or "subordinate." See also: probate
amend :: v. to alter or change by adding, subtracting, or s ... mended pleading statute stipulation
ambiguity :: n. when language has more than one meaning. If the ... most favorable to the other party.
alienation :: n. the transfer of title to real property, volunta ... such as a mortgage. See also: alien
alien :: 1) n. a person who is not a citizen of the country ... 3) v. to convey title to property.
agreement :: 1) n. any meeting of the minds, even without legal ... specific terms. See also: contract
agreed statement :: n. occasionally the two parties on opposite sides ... gument and not of the actual facts.
alienation of affections :: n. convincing a wife to leave her husband, often f ... een abolished in almost all states.
alimony :: n. support paid by one ex-spouse to the other as o ... ild support divorce spousal support
alternative pleading :: n. a legal fiction in which a party to a lawsuit o ... t the defendant committed the act).
alluvion :: n. an increase in one's land from soil deposited o ... , bay or ocean. See also: accretion
allegation :: n. a statement of claimed fact contained in a comp ... sure of a fact. See also: complaint
aliquot :: (al-ee-kwoh) adj. a definite fractional share, us ... trust assets. See also: share
adjuster :: n. an employee (usually a non-lawyer) of an insura ... e company in approving settlements.
adjusted basis :: n. in accounting, the original cost of an asset ad ... s taxes. See also: basis income tax
abet :: v. to help someone commit a crime, including helpi ... n the crime. See also: aid and abet
abeyance :: 1) n. when the owner- ship of property has not bee ... 2) legal jargon for "undetermined."
abduction :: n. the criminal taking away of a person by persuas ... g of children. See also: kidnapping
abate :: v. to do away with a problem, such as a public or ... ty septic tank. See also: abatement
underwrite :: v. 1) to agree to pay an obligation which may aris ... antee guarantor insurer underwriter
able-bodied :: adj. physically capable of working at a job or in ... of paying alimony or child support.
abortion :: n. the termination of pregnancy by various means, ... ed abortion continue in the future.
abuse of process :: n. the use of legal process by illegal, malicious, ... ly correct the error and apologize.
abuse of discretion :: n. a polite way of saying a trial judge has made s ... partner's realistic ability to pay.
abstract of judgment :: n. a written summary of a judgment which states ho ... aying the debt. See also: levy lien
absolute :: adj. complete, and without condition. ... j. complete, and without condition.
tenure :: n. 1) in real property, the right to possess the p ... e a probationary period has passed.
save harmless :: v. 1) also called hold harmless, to indemnify (pro ... . See also: hold harmless indemnify
guarantor :: n. a person or entity that agrees to be responsibl ... pay or perform. See also: guarantee
debenture :: n. a form of bond certificate issued by a corporat ... n shares of stock or general bonds.
confiscate :: v. to take one's goods or property without legal r ... affic. See also: condemnation theft
bail :: 1) n. the money or bond put up to secure the relea ... bond bail bondsman own recognizance
letter of credit :: n. a document issued by a bank guaranteeing to pro ... ong-distance business transactions.
make :: v. 1) to create something. 2) to sign a check, pro ... xchange check maker promissory note
privilege against self incrimina-tion :: n. a right to refuse to testify against oneself in ... so: Bill of Rights taking the Fifth
pour over will :: n. a will of a person who has already executed a t ... invalid trust. See also: trust will
peace bond :: n. a bond required as part of a court order to gua ... ee also: injunction stay away order
obscene :: adj., adv. a highly subjective reference to materi ... en I see it." See also: pornography
acceleration clause :: n. a provision in a contract or promissory note th ... . See also: acceleration assumption
accept :: v. to receive something with approval and intentio ... ervice" (delivery) of legal papers.
ad litem :: adj. legal Latin meaning "for the purposes of the ... of age. See also: guardian ad litem
ad hoc :: adj. Latin shorthand meaning "for this purpose onl ... pecially able to argue a key point.
actionable :: adj. when enough facts or circumstances exist to m ... ction lawsuit malicious prosecution
act of God :: n. a natural catastrophe which no one can prevent ... atural event. God knows the answer!
ad valorem :: adj. Latin for "based on value," which applies to ... per parcel. See also: property tax
addendum :: n. an addition to a completed written document. Mo ... proposals or included fraudulently.
adjourn :: v. the final closing of a meeting, such as a conve ... ater time. See also: recess session
adhesion contract :: n.(contract of adhesion) a contract (often a signe ... ourceful lawyer. See also: contract
adequate remedy :: n. a remedy (money or performance) awarded by a co ... es it, giving cause for his arrest.
adeem :: v. to revoke a gift made in a will by destroying, ... e of my death." See also: ademption
act :: 1) n. in general, any action by a person. 2) n. a ... ct on your motion for a new trial."
acknowledgment :: n. the section at the end of a document where a no ... me leases and various other papers.
accessory :: n. a second-string player who helps in the commiss ... responsible. See also: aid and abet
access :: n. 1) in real estate the right and ability to get ... See also: DNA egress paternity suit
acceptance of service :: n. agreement by a defendant (or his/her attorney) ... o accept service. See also: service
acceptance :: n. 1) receiving something from another with the in ... ered into. See also: contract offer
accomplice :: n. someone who assists in the commission of a crim ... cipal criminal. See also: accessory
account stated :: n. a statement between a creditor or the person to ... ending on the state. See also: debt
acknowledge :: v. 1) generally to admit something, whether bad, g ... recording. See also: acknowledgment
accusation :: n. 1) in legal terms accusation means officially c ... im of wrongdoing by another person.
accretion :: n. 1) in real estate, the increase of the actual l ... cted event. See also: probate trust
accounts receivable :: n. the amounts of money due or owed to a business ... sidering the chances of collection.
antitrust laws :: n. acts adopted by Congress to outlaw or restrict ... so: price fixing restraint of trade
apparent authority :: n. the appearance of being the agent of another (e ... e also: agency ostensible authority
belief :: n. convinced of the truth of a statement or allega ... t. See also: information and belief
bench :: n. 1) general term for all judges, as in "the benc ... h court judge sidebar witness stand
beach bum trust provision :: n. a requirement in a trust that a beneficiary can ... live off the trust. See also: trust
battery :: n. the actual intentional striking of someone, wit ... e also: assault assault and battery
basis :: n. the original cost of an asset to be used to det ... ssistance. See also: adjusted basis
beneficial interest :: n. the right of a party to some profit, distributi ... benefits. See also: contract trust
benefit :: 1) n. any profit or acquired right or privilege, p ... fit Ken Murray." See also: contract
bifurcate :: v. the order or ruling of a judge that one issue i ... is necessary. See also: bifurcation
BFP :: n. slang for bona fide purchaser, which means some ... ner). See also: bona fide purchaser
beyond a reasonable doubt :: adj. part of jury instructions in all criminal tri ... on moral certainty reasonable doubt
benefit of counsel :: n. having the opportunity to have an attorney and ... attorney is the person's own fault.
barrister :: n. in the United States a fancy name for a lawyer ... ome barristers. See also: solicitor
barratry :: n. creating legal business by stirring up disputes ... ent he/she has no legitimate claim.
bankruptcy :: n. a federal system of statutes and courts which p ... y proceedings trustee in bankruptcy
bank :: n. 1) an officially chartered institution empowere ... erred to as "in bank" or "en banc."
balance sheet :: n. the statement of the assets and the liabilities ... ctivity and health of the business.
bailor :: n. a person who leaves goods in the custody of ano ... is found. See also: bailee bailment
bankruptcy court :: n. the specialized federal court in which bankrupt ... : bankruptcy bankruptcy proceedings
bankruptcy proceedings :: n. the bankruptcy procedure is: a) filing a petiti ... ankruptcy court claim in bankruptcy
bargain :: n. 1) a mutual agreement or contract between two p ... o: agreement consideration contract
bar examination :: n. the examination given in each state by either t ... n that district. See also: attorney
bar association :: n. an organization of lawyers. There are two types ... oluntary organization of attorneys.
bar :: 1) n. collectively all attorneys, as "the bar," wh ... a room, building, or real property.
bigamy :: n. the condition of having two wives or two husban ... d to several husbands is polyandry.
bilateral contract :: n. an agreement in which the parties exchange prom ... also: contract unilateral contract
breach of contract :: n. failing to perform any term of a contract, writ ... breach breach specific performance
boycott :: n. organized refusal to purchase products or patro ... e laws. See also: secondary boycott
bottomry :: n. a mortgage contract in which a ship and/or its ... n sell the ship and/or its freight.
book value :: n. a determination of the value of a corporation's ... ssets may be under- or over-valued.
breach of promise :: n. historically, the dumping of a female fiancee b ... d no longer exist. See also: breach
bribery :: n. the crime of giving or taking money or some oth ... s which are against company policy.
bulk sale :: n. the sale of all or a large part of a merchant's ... entories. See also: bulk sales acts
bucket shop :: n. an unofficial and usually illegal betting opera ... the stock and commodities markets.
broker :: n. in general, a person who arranges contracts bet ... security ("hocked") at high rates.
brief :: 1) n. a written legal argument, usually in a forma ... another person. See also: precedent
book account :: n. an account of a customer kept in a business led ... or a debt. See also: account stated
bona fide purchaser :: n. commonly called BFP in legal and banking circle ... See also: BFP holder in due course
binder :: n. a written statement of the key terms of an agre ... rance coverage. See also: insurance
bill of sale :: n. a written statement attesting to the transfer ( ... ther provisions. See also: contract
bill of particulars :: n. a written itemization of claims which a defenda ... the factual bases for the charges.
bill :: n. 1) what is commonly called a "check" by which t ... ions, which is falling into disuse.
blue laws :: n. state or local laws which prohibit certain acti ... estiges remain at least informally.
blue sky laws :: n. laws intended to protect the public from purcha ... e sky." See also: corporation stock
bona fide :: adj. Latin for "good faith," it signifies honesty, ... t doubt on the right to hold title.
boilerplate :: n., adj. slang for provisions in a contract, form ... favor and/or protect the provider.
boiler room :: n. a telephone bank operation in which fast-talkin ... and in violation of security laws.
board of directors :: n. the policy managers of a corporation or organiz ... he expertise. See also: corporation
bailment :: n. 1) the act of placing property in the custody a ... "bailment." See also: bailee bailor
bailiff :: n. 1) a court official, usually a deputy sheriff, ... isdictional territory of a bailiff.
asset :: n. generally any item of property that has monetar ... ill and rights to market a product.
assault :: 1) v. the threat or attempt to strike another, whe ... ult, including for mental distress.
as is :: adj. description of a condition in a sales contrac ... es to cancel the "as is" provision.
articles of incorporation :: n. the basic charter of a corporation which spells ... year's taxes. See also: corporation
assign :: 1) v. to transfer to another person any asset such ... en shows up in contracts and wills.
assigned risk :: n. a person whose official driving record (acciden ... ed insurance program at high rates.
assumption of risk :: n. 1) taking a chance in a potentially dangerous s ... d be damaged or prove unprofitable.
association :: n. any group of people who have joined together fo ... ed, although technically redundant.
Associate Justice :: n. a member of the U.S. Supreme Court appointed by ... acquitted.) See also: Supreme Court
assignment :: n. the act of transferring an interest in property ... ing with property. See also: assign
articles of impeachment :: n. the charges brought (filed) to impeach a public ... y the Senate. See also: impeachment
arraign :: v. to bring a criminal defendant before the court, ... d. See also: appearance arraignment
approach the bench :: v. an attorney's movement from the counsel table t ... ake a recess to go to the restroom.
appraiser :: n. a professional who makes appraisals of the valu ... isal Institute). See also: appraise
appearance :: n. the act of a party or an attorney showing up in ... neral appearance special appearance
appeal :: 1) v. to ask a higher court to reverse the decisio ... ng, as in "he has filed an appeal."
approach the witness :: v. a request by an attorney to the judge for permi ... t, and it is almost always granted.
arbiter :: n. in some jurisdictions the name for a referee ap ... efore it is binding on the parties.
arm's length :: adj. the description of an agreement made by two p ... th" transaction. See also: contract
argumentative :: adj. the characterization of a question asked by t ... oody glove just walked over there?"
arbitrator :: n. one who conducts an arbitration, and serves as ... he other two. See also: arbitration
arbitration :: n. a mini-trial, which may be for a lawsuit ready ... tance of the arbitrator's decision.
at will employment :: n. a provision found in many employment contracts ... ons. See also: wrongful termination
attached :: adj. 1) referring to two buildings which are conne ... o: attachment fixture trade fixture
authority :: n. permission, a right coupled with the power to d ... rize ostensible authority principal
authorities :: n. 1) previous decisions by courts of appeal which ... also: brief cite decision precedent
auditor :: n. an accountant who conducts an audit to verify t ... ing any accountant. See also: audit
attractive nuisance doctrine :: n. a legal doctrine which makes a person negligent ... ch make negligence harder to prove.
back-to-back life sentences :: n. slang for consecutive life terms imposed by a j ... ther 25 years for a parole hearing.
bad debt :: n. an uncollectible debt. The problem is to determ ... ust no income on which to be taxed.
bailee :: n. a person, also called a custodian, with whom so ... he goods. See also: bailment bailor
bail bondsman :: n. a professional agent for an insurance company w ... t to jail. See also: bail bail bond
bail bond :: n. a bond provided by an insurance company through ... urned. See also: bail bail bondsman
bad faith :: 1) n. intentional dishonest act by not fulfilling ... ean hands doctrine fraud good faith
attorney's work product :: n. written materials, charts, notes of conversatio ... ivileged communication work product
attorney's fee :: n. the payment for legal services. It can take sev ... ees in the particular type of case.
attestation :: n. the act of witnessing a signature for the purpo ... or her signature. See also: attest
attest :: v. 1) to confirm (usually in writing) that a docum ... also: holographic will will witness
attempt :: v. and n. to actually try to commit a crime and ha ... felt he tried but did not succeed.
attachment :: n. the seizing of money or property prior to getti ... bond. See also: writ of attachment
attorney :: n. 1) an agent or someone authorized to act for an ... ialize. See also: court reciprocity
Attorney General :: n. in each state and the federal government the hi ... izenry. See also: Solicitor General
attorney's advertising :: n. the commercials which appear on television or c ... es to handle high volume practices.
attorney-in-fact :: n. someone specifically named by another through a ... cument. See also: power of attorney
attorney-client privilege :: n. the requirement that an attorney may not reveal ... ivileged communication work product
attorney of record :: n. the attorney who has appeared in court and/or s ... eve have long since been completed.
criminal justice :: n. a generic term for the procedure by which crimi ... endered and punishment carried out.
criminal law :: n. those statutes dealing with crimes against the ... See also: crime felony misdemeanor
heir :: n. one who acquires property upon the death of ano ... y pretermitted heir succession will
heirs of the body :: n. descendants of one's bloodline, such as childre ... nal owner. See also: heir reversion
hearsay rule :: n. the basic rule that testimony or documents whic ... interest dying declaration hearsay
hearsay :: n. 1) second-hand evidence in which the witness is ... t or gossip. See also: hearsay rule
hearing :: n. any proceeding before a judge or other magistra ... e hearing preliminary hearing trial
hereditament :: n. any kind of property which can be inherited. Th ... till found in some wills and deeds.
hidden asset :: n. an item of value which does not show on the boo ... ets on a profit and loss statement.
holding company :: n. a company, usually a corporation, which is crea ... gement and policies of all of them.
holder in due course :: n. one holding a check or promissory note, receive ... note. See also: bona fide purchaser
holder :: n. a general term for anyone in possession of prop ... older in due course promissory note
highway :: n. any public street, road, turnpike or canal whic ... rivilege and not an absolute right.
headnote :: n. the summary of the key legal points determined ... not the court's. See also: reports
head of household :: n. 1) in federal income tax law, the person filing ... n or daughter. 3) "head of family."
guest statute :: n. a state law which sets standards of care by the ... sked to be let out. See also: guest
guardian ad litem :: n. a person appointed by the court only to take le ... awsuit is filed. See also: ad litem
guardian :: n. a person who has been appointed by a judge to t ... torship. See also: conservator ward
gross negligence :: n. carelessness which is in reckless disregard for ... damages negligence punitive damages
habeas corpus :: (hay-bee-us core-puss) n. Latin for "you have the ... nality of a state court conviction.
habitable :: adj. referring to a residence that is safe and can ... rent. See also: landlord and tenant
harmless error :: n. an error by a judge in the conduct of a trial w ... ar to be harmless." See also: error
harassment :: (either harris-meant or huh-rass-meant) n. the act ... See also: harass sexual harassment
harass :: (either harris or huh-rass) v. systematic and/or c ... also: harassment sexual harassment
half blood :: 1) adj. sharing one parent only. 2) n. a half brot ... icularly Native American and white.
holdover tenancy :: n. the situation when a tenant of real estate cont ... to a lawsuit for unlawful detainer.
holographic will :: n. a will entirely handwritten, dated and signed b ... lost in the desert. See also: will
impleader :: n. a procedural device before trial in which a par ... than having two suits in a series.
impeach :: v. 1) to discredit the testimony of a witness by p ... ve been found guilty by the Senate.
impaneling :: n. the act of selecting a jury from the list of po ... e juror jury panel venire voir dire
impanel :: v. to select and install a jury. See also: impanel ... l a jury. See also: impaneling jury
implied consent :: n. consent when surrounding circumstances exist wh ... aybe" or "later." See also: implied
implied contract :: n. an agreement which is found to exist based on t ... : contract express contract implied
in absentia :: (in ab-sensh-ee-ah) adj. or adv. phrase. Latin for ... tin Bormann, Hitler's closest aide.
impute :: v. 1) to attach to a person responsibility (and th ... also. See also: vicarious liability
impound :: v. 1) to collect funds, in addition to installment ... cases. See also: forfeit forfeiture
impotence :: n. the male's inability to copulate. Impotence can ... eans inability to produce children.
immunity :: n. exemption from penalties, payments or legal req ... ws. See also: governmental immunity
illusory promise :: n. an agreement to do something that is so indefin ... he may have thought was a contract.
homicide :: n. the killing of a human being due to the act or ... aughter murder self-defense suicide
hometowned :: adv. legalese for a lawyer or client suffering dis ... orneys over those from out of town.
homestead :: 1) n. the house and lot of a homeowner which the h ... s in "he homesteaded the property."
home rule :: n. the power of a local city or county to set up i ... state funds for local improvements.
hornbook law :: n. lawyer lingo for a fundamental and well-accepte ... e a hornbook is a primer of basics.
hotchpot :: n. the putting together, blending or mixing of var ... t in the hotchpot and then divided.
illegal :: 1) adj. in violation of statute, regulation or ord ... . See also: alien illegal immigrant
i.e. :: prep. abbreviation for id est, which is Latin for ... "e.g.," which means "for example."
hypothecate :: v. from Greek for "pledge," a generic term for usi ... sion. See also: secured transaction
hung jury :: n. slang for a hopelessly deadlocked jury in a cri ... also: dismissal jury mistrial trial
gravamen :: n. Latin for "to weigh down," the basic gist of ev ... o: cause of action charge complaint
grantor-grantee index :: n. a set of books and/or computerized lists found ... ument in tracking a chain of title.
foreclosure sale :: n. the actual forced sale of real property at a pu ... dicial sale mortgage sheriff's sale
forensic :: 1) adj. from Latin forensis for "belonging to the ... in legal matters, including trials.
foreclosure :: n. the system by which a party who has loaned mone ... ced sale mortgage notice of default
forcible entry :: n. the crime of taking possession of a house or ot ... ce after having come in peacefully.
forbearance :: n. an intentional delay in collecting a debt or de ... the debtor to pay an added amount.
forensic testimony :: n. any testimony of expert scientific, engineering ... ee also: forensic forensic medicine
foreseeable risk :: n. a danger which a reasonable person should antic ... reseeable. See also: foreseeability
forum non conveniens :: (for-uhm nahn cahn-vee-nee-ehns) n. Latin for a fo ... most convenient location for trial.
forthwith :: adv. a term found in contracts, court orders and s ... mediacy, with no excuses for delay.
fornication :: n. sexual intercourse between a man and woman who ... obbers, murderers and drug dealers.
forfeit :: v. to lose property or rights involuntarily as a p ... drunk driving. See also: forfeiture
floating easement :: n. an easement (a right to use another's property ... of the easement. See also: easement
fixture :: n. a piece of equipment which has been attached to ... ary repair. See also: trade fixture
fighting words :: n. words intentionally directed toward another per ... he basis for a lawsuit for assault.
fiduciary relationship :: n. where one person places complete confidence in ... handling. See also: fiduciary trust
fiduciary :: 1) n. from the Latin fiducia, meaning "trust," a p ... lation fiduciary relationship trust
fictitious defendants :: n. when a party suing (plaintiff) is not sure if h ... are not permitted in federal cases.
file :: 1) v. to deposit with the clerk of the court a wri ... rrespondence and notes on the case.
final judgment :: n. the written determination of a lawsuit by the j ... : final decree interlocutory decree
first impression :: adj. referring to a legal issue which has never be ... s for both sides to assist him/her.
first degree murder :: n. although it varies from state to state, it is g ... aughter murder second degree murder
finding :: n. the determination of a factual question vital ( ... e case. See also: conclusion of law
final settlement :: n. an agreement reached by the parties to a lawsui ... rneys present. See also: settlement
foster child :: n. a child without parental support and protection ... local government or a state agency.
four corners of an instrument :: n. the term for studying an entire document to und ... solve an ambiguity in its language.
generation skipping :: adj., adv. referring to gifts made through trusts ... to a grandchild without a gift tax.
general plan :: n. a plan of a city, county or area which establis ... uture development. See also: zoning
general partner :: n. 1) usually one of the owners and operators of a ... ted partnership partner partnership
general denial :: n. a statement in an answer to a lawsuit or claim ... anguage. See also: answer complaint
gift :: n. the voluntary transfer of property (including m ... ift tax unified estate and gift tax
gift in contemplation of death :: n. (called a gift causa mortis by lawyers showing ... ift tax unified estate and gift tax
governmental immunity :: n. the doctrine from English common law that no go ... o: Federal Tort Claims Act immunity
goodwill :: n. the benefit of a business having a good reputat ... an unknowing buyer. See also: sale
good title :: n. ownership of real property which is totally fre ... or deed of trust on the property).
Good Samaritan rule :: n. from a Biblical story, if a volunteer comes to ... a lawsuit for millions of dollars.
general damages :: n. monetary recovery (money won) in a lawsuit for ... s exemplary damages special damages
general appearance :: n. an attorney's representation of a client in cou ... case. See also: special appearance
frustration of purpose :: n. sometimes called commercial frustration, when u ... n. See also: commercial frustration
fraudulent conveyance :: n. the transfer (conveyance) of title to real prop ... the conveyance will probably fail.
fraud :: n. the intentional use of deceit, a trick or some ... audulent conveyance intrinsic fraud
franchise :: 1) n. a right granted by the government to a perso ... on property, income or profits tax.
fugitive from justice :: n. a person convicted or accused of a crime who hi ... extradition. See also: extradition
full disclosure :: n. the need in business transactions to tell the " ... icant fact. See also: caveat emptor
gender bias :: n. unequal treatment in employment opportunity (su ... statutes. See also: discrimination
garnishment :: n. the entire process of petitioning for and getti ... heriff. See also: garnish garnishee
garnish :: v. to obtain a court order directing a party holdi ... ed. See also: garnishee garnishment
gag order :: n. a judge's order prohibiting the attorneys and t ... st day in office, January 22, 1993.
in camera :: adj. or adv. phrase. Latin for "in chambers." This ... he courtroom. See also: in chambers
in kind :: adj. referring to payment, distribution or substit ... . See also: distribution trust will
intoxication :: n. 1) the condition of being drunk as the result o ... r. See also: vehicular manslaughter
intrinsic fraud :: n. an intentionally false representation (lie) whi ... ts. See also: extrinsic fraud fraud
intestate succession :: n. the distribution when a person dies without lea ... sion. See also: intestacy intestate
intervention :: n. the procedure under which a third party may joi ... rvene joinder multiplicity of suits
intervening cause :: n. an event which occurs between the original impr ... cause negligence superseding cause
invasion of privacy :: n. the intrusion into the personal life of another ... randeis. See also: right to privacy
inverse condemnation :: n. the taking of property by a government agency w ... e also: condemnation eminent domain
irrelevant :: adj. not important, pertinent, or germane to the m ... ce immaterial incompetent objection
irreconcilable differences :: n. the usual basis for granting a divorce (dissolu ... See also: divorce no fault divorce
involuntary :: adj. or adv. without intent, will or choice. Parti ... l result in dismissal or acquittal.
invitee :: n. a person who comes onto another's property, pre ... ail employees. See also: negligence
intervene :: v. to obtain the court's permission to enter into ... ntion joinder multiplicity of suits
interstate commerce :: n. commercial trade, business, movement of goods o ... and the I.C.C. may soon be history.
interlineation :: n. the act of writing between the lines of a docum ... document re-typed and then signed.
interest :: n. 1) any and all, partial or total right to prope ... nal property real property standing
inter vivos trust :: n. a trust created by a writing (declaration of tr ... nter vivos testamentary trust trust
inter vivos :: (in-tur veye-vohs) adj. Latin for "among the livin ... e will. See also: inter vivos trust
interlocutory :: adj. provisional and not intended to be final. Thi ... ary. See also: interlocutory decree
interlocutory decree :: n. a court judgment which is temporary and not int ... ppeared to waste the parties' time.
interrogatories :: n. a set of written questions to a party to a laws ... ing. See also: deposition discovery
interrogation :: n. questioning of a suspect or witness by law enfo ... the poisonous tree Miranda warning
interpleader :: n. the procedure when two parties are involved in ... e claimants fight over it in court.
international law :: n. treaties between countries; multi-lateral agree ... all nations. See also: World Court
issue :: 1) n. a person's children or other lineal descenda ... the body incorporation share stock
jaywalking :: n. walking across a street outside of marked cross ... jury to the jaywalker by a vehicle.
judgment creditor :: n. the winning plaintiff in a lawsuit to whom the ... 's rights judgment prevailing party
judge advocate general :: (J.A.G.) n. a military officer who advises the gov ... also: court-martial judge advocate
judge advocate :: n. a military officer with legal training who has ... ourt-martial judge advocate general
judge :: 1) n. an official with the authority and responsib ... ice justice of the peace magistrate
judicial discretion :: n. the power of the judge to make decisions on som ... iscretion beyond his/her authority.
judicial sale :: n. a sale of goods by an official (keeper, trustee ... o be sold. See also: sheriff's sale
jurisprudence :: n. the entire subject of law, the study of law and ... e study of law and legal questions.
jurisdictional amount :: n. the range between the minimum and maximum amoun ... equirements. See also: jurisdiction
Juris Doctor :: (J.D.) n. the law degree granted upon graduation b ... tles a person to a graduate degree.
jurat :: (jur-at) n. Latin for "been sworn," the portion of ... wledgment declaration notary public
Jones Act :: n., adj. a federal law which covers injuries to cr ... ." See also: admiralty maritime law
joint venture :: n. an enterprise entered into by two or more peopl ... s terminated. See also: partnership
joint :: adj., adv. referring to property, rights or obliga ... ncy joint venture tenancy in common
joinder of issue :: n. that point in a lawsuit when the defendant has ... matters are to be decided by trial.
joinder :: n. the joining together of several lawsuits or sev ... er misjoinder multiplicity of suits
jobber :: n. a merchant who buys products (usually in bulk o ... buys and acts for specific clients.
joint custody :: n. in divorce actions, a decision by the court (of ... em. See also: child custody divorce
joint enterprise :: n. a generic term for an activity of two or more p ... liability joint venture partnership
joint tortfeasors :: n. two or more persons whose negligence in a singl ... : comparative negligence negligence
joint tenancy :: n. a crucial relationship in the ownership of real ... ty property tenancy in common title
joint powers agreement :: n. a contract between a city, a county and/or a sp ... istrict or other government entity.
joint liability :: n. when two or more persons are both responsible f ... See also: joinder joint and several
inter alia :: (in-tur eh-lee-ah) prep. Latin for "among other th ... ime to file the action had passed."
intent :: n. mental desire and will to act in a particular w ... ess homicide or other lesser crime.
incompetent evidence :: n. testimony, documents or things which one side a ... ns. See also: incompetent objection
incompetent :: adj. 1) referring to a person who is not able to m ... n incompetency incompetent evidence
incompetency :: n. the condition of lacking the ability to handle ... and/or represented by an attorney.
incompatible :: adj. 1) inconsistent. 2) unmatching. 3) unable to ... ch other. See also: incompatibility
incorporate :: v. 1) to obtain an official charter or articles of ... te by reference incorporation stock
incorporate by reference :: v. to include language from another document or el ... uses of Action hereinabove stated."
indictment :: n. a charge of a felony (serious crime) voted by a ... ictable offense preliminary hearing
indictable offense :: n. a crime (offense) for which a Grand Jury rules ... o commit them. See also: indictment
independent contractor :: n. a person or business which performs services fo ... ue independence. See also: employee
indecent exposure :: n. the crime of displaying one's genitalia to one ... d give the exposer a sexual charge.
incompatibility :: n. the state of a marriage in which the spouses no ... mpatible irreconcilable differences
income tax :: n. a tax on an individual's net income, after dedu ... al government. See also: income tax
in propria persona :: adj. from Latin "for one's self," acting on one's ... client and an ass for an attorney."
in personam :: adj. (in purr-soh-nam) from Latin for "directed to ... here. See also: in rem jurisdiction
in perpetuity :: adj. forever, as in one's right to keep the profit ... rofits from the land in perpetuity.
in loco parentis :: prep. (in loh-coh pah-rent-iss) Latin for "instead ... 5, if and when he needs legal help.
in rem :: adj. from Latin "against or about a thing," referr ... cular person. See also: in personam
in terrorem clause :: (in tehr-roar-em)n. from Latin for "in fear," a pr ... e gift. See also: will will contest
income :: n. money, goods or other economic benefit received ... ernment and most state governments.
incidental beneficiary :: n. someone who obtains a benefit as the result of ... parent. See also: beneficiary trust
incest :: n. sexual intercourse between close blood relative ... ily genes carrying such weaknesses.
incapacity :: adj. 1) not being able to perform any gainful empl ... of the will. See also: incompetent
indigent :: 1) n. a person so poor and needy that he/she canno ... person who is very poor and needy.
indispensable party :: n. a person or entity which must be included in a ... tion to join Olivia as a defendant.
insider :: n. someone who has a position in a business or sto ... ange Act. See also: insider trading
insanity :: n. mental illness of such a severe nature that a p ... M'Naughten rule temporary insanity
inquest :: n. 1) an investigation and/or a hearing held by th ... surrogate judge. See also: coroner
innuendo :: n. from Latin innuere, "to nod toward." In law it ... See also: defamation libel slander
insolvency :: n. 1) the condition of having more debts (liabilit ... the property. See also: bankruptcy
inspection of documents :: n. the right to examine and copy the opposing part ... evidence subpena duces tecum trial
integration :: n. 1) adopting a writing as part of an agreement, ... , as well as racial mix in schools.
insurance :: n. a contract (insurance policy) in which the insu ... t clause Workers' Compensation Acts
instruction :: n. an explanation of the law governing a case whic ... fore the jury begins deliberations.
installment contract :: n. an agreement in which payments of money, delive ... n contract failure of consideration
innocent :: adj. without guilt (not guilty). Usually the plea ... also: arraignment plea plea bargain
injunctive relief :: n. a court-ordered act or prohibition against an a ... t injunction restraining order writ
informed consent :: n. agreement to do something or to allow something ... . See also: consent Miranda warning
information :: n. an accusation or criminal charge brought by the ... Jury indictment preliminary hearing
inference :: n. a rule of logic applied to evidence in a trial, ... . See also: circumstantial evidence
infancy :: n. although the popular use of the word means the ... nority. See also: ad litem minority
infra :: prep. Latin for "below," this is legal shorthand t ... e document. See also: citation cite
infringement :: n. 1) a trespassing or illegal entering. 2) in the ... patent plagiarism royalty trademark
injunction :: n. a writ (order) issued by a court ordering someo ... t. See also: injunctive relief writ
inheritance :: n. whatever one receives upon the death of a relat ... intestacy intestate succession will
inherit :: v. to receive all or a portion of the estate of an ... intestacy intestate succession will
ingress :: 1) n. entrance. 2) n. the right to enter. 3) v. th ... property. See also: easement egress
fertile octogenarian :: n. an unrealistic notion that any person (male or ... e passed laws to cure this anomaly.
felony murder doctrine :: n. a rule of criminal statutes that any death whic ... arged with murder. See also: murder
desertion :: n. the act of abandoning, particularly leaving one ... tody and other post-marital issues.
devisee :: n. a person who receives a gift of real property b ... will. See also: beneficiary legatee
desert :: v. to intentionally abandon a person or thing. ... tionally abandon a person or thing.
descent :: n. the rules of inheritance established by law in ... on inheritance intestate succession
derivative action :: n. a lawsuit brought by a corporation shareholder ... on director shareholder stockholder
dictum :: n. Latin for "remark," a comment by a judge in a d ... cta)." See also: dicta obiter dicta
diminished capacity :: n. essentially a psychological term which has foun ... See also: insanity M'Naughten rule
disbar :: v. to remove an attorney from the list of practici ... legal ethics. (See moral turpitude
disability :: n. 1) a condition which prevents one from performi ... ct, or being insane or incompetent.
director :: n. a member of the governing board of a corporatio ... lso: board of directors corporation
direct examination :: n. the first questioning of a witness during a tri ... nation deposition testimony witness
dereliction :: n. 1) abandoning possession, which is sometimes us ... is building up). See also: derelict
derelict :: n. something or someone who is abandoned, such as ... iety. See also: abandon dereliction
demonstrative evidence :: n. actual objects, pictures, models and other devi ... the trial judge. See also: evidence
delivery :: n. the actual handing to another of an object, mon ... rties. See also: contract deed sale
deliver :: v. to actually hand an object, money or document t ... ject, money or document to another.
deliberation :: n. the act of considering, discussing and, hopeful ... ssions, voting and decision-making.
demurrer :: n. (dee-muhr-ur) a written response to a complaint ... demurrer. See also: motion pleading
deportation :: n. the act of expelling a foreigner from a country ... s usually to the country of origin.
depreciation reserve :: n. a business fund in which the probable replaceme ... s obsolete and totally depreciated.
depreciation :: n. the actual or theoretical gradual loss of value ... e early years of use (accelerated).
depreciate :: v. in accounting, to reduce the value of an asset ... ittle value. See also: depreciation
deposition :: n. the taking and recording of testimony of a witn ... See also: deponent depose discovery
disbarment :: n. the ultimate discipline of an attorney, which i ... ation and/or cure. See also: disbar
discharge :: v. 1) to perform one's duties. 2) to dismiss someo ... d not be paid. See also: bankruptcy
diversity of citizenship :: n. when opposing parties in a lawsuit are citizens ... unt in controversy exceeds $10,000.
diversion :: n. in criminal procedure, a system for giving a ch ... second offense. See also: probation
disturbing the peace :: n. upsetting the quiet and good order particularly ... able by fine or brief term in jail.
District Attorney (D.A.) :: n. an elected official of a county or a designated ... dent and serve at his/her pleasure.
dividend :: n. a portion of profit, usually based on the numbe ... . See also: corporation shareholder
divorce :: 1) n. the termination of a marriage by legal actio ... y separate property spousal support
domestic partners :: n. unmarried couples, including homosexuals, livin ... , such as job-related health plans.
doing business :: v. carrying on the normal activities of a corporat ... oration operating within the state.
documentary evidence :: n. any document (paper) which is presented and all ... evancy. See also: document evidence
DNA :: n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromo ... is strongly in favor of admission.
distribute :: v. 1) the dividing up of those assets of an estate ... and distribution probate trust will
dissolution of corporation :: n. termination of a corporation, either a) volunta ... e government. See also: corporation
discrimination :: n. unequal treatment of persons, for a reason whic ... qual rights. See also: civil rights
discovery :: n. the entire efforts of a party to a lawsuit and ... ee also: deposition interrogatories
discount :: n. the payment of less than the full amount due on ... now-the difference is the discount.
discharge in bankruptcy :: n. an order given by the bankruptcy judge, at the ... red creditors. See also: bankruptcy
disjunctive allegations :: n. the attempt to claim in a civil lawsuit that on ... o: cause of action charge complaint
dismiss :: v. the ruling by a judge that all or a portion (on ... nst that party. See also: dismissal
dissolution :: n. modern, gentler sounding, term for divorce, off ... lving a marriage. See also: divorce
dissent :: n. 1) the opinion of a judge of a court of appeals ... sagreement with prevailing thought.
disorderly conduct :: n. 1) actions that disturb others. 2) minor crimin ... peace, and loud threats or parties.
dismissal :: n. 1) the act of voluntarily terminating a crimina ... f the settlement. See also: dismiss
deliberate :: 1) adj. (dee-lib-er-et) done with care and intenti ... any group including a legislature.
delayed exchange :: n. an exchange of property to put off capital gain ... method and survived an IRS lawsuit.
dangerous weapon :: n. any gun, knife, sword, crossbow, slingshot or o ... igence and possibly win a judgment.
dangerous :: adj. unsafe, hazardous, fraught with risk. It can ... eapon's range. See also: negligence
d.b.a. :: n. short for "doing business as," when a person or ... that is registered with the state.
cy pres doctrine :: n. (see-pray doctrine) from French, meaning "as cl ... ey among several S.P.C.A. chapters.
date rape :: n. forcible sexual intercourse by a male acquainta ... physical resistance. See also: rape
de jure corporation :: n. a corporation in good standing under the law, a ... also: de facto corporation de jure
death penalty :: n. the sentence of execution for murder and some o ... rder and some other capital crimes.
dealer :: n. anyone who buys goods or property for the purpo ... ins taxes by buying other property.
deadly weapon :: n. any weapon which can kill. This includes not on ... See also: assault dangerous weapon
de minimis :: adj. (dee-minnie-miss) Latin for "of minimum impor ... deal, a $10 mistake is de minimis.
cut a check :: v. to write (prepare) and sign a check. ... o write (prepare) and sign a check.
Customs Court :: n. a federal court established (1926) to hear appe ... Court of Customs and Patent Appeals
cruelty to animals :: n. the crime of inflicting physical pain, sufferin ... danger of death. See also: cruelty
cruelty :: n. the intentional and malicious infliction of phy ... ruel and unusual punishment divorce
cross-examination :: n. the opportunity for the attorney (or an unrepre ... examination testimony trial witness
cross-complaint :: n. after a complaint has been filed against a defe ... g prayer service of process summons
culpable :: adj. sufficiently responsible for criminal acts or ... ons and thus should take the blame.
cumis counsel :: n. an attorney employed by a defendant in a lawsui ... fendant be approved by the company.
custody :: n. 1) holding property under one's control. 2) law ... inor child. See also: child custody
curtesy :: n. in old common law, the right of a surviving hus ... ommunity property dower life estate
cumulative voting :: n. in corporations, a system of voting by sharehol ... eholders with 1,001 or more shares.
cumulative sentence :: n. when a criminal defendant has been found guilty ... in a five-year term in the example.
death row :: n. nickname for that portion of a prison in which ... o: capital punishment death penalty
debtor in possession :: n. in bankruptcy proceedings when a debtor has fil ... n possession." See also: bankruptcy
default judgment :: n. if a defendant in a lawsuit fails to respond to ... See also: complaint default summons
default :: 1) n. failure to respond to a summons and complain ... default judgment notice of default
defamation :: n. the act of making untrue statements about anoth ... comment libel public figure slander
deed of trust :: n. a document which pledges real property to secur ... : foreclosure mortgage reconveyance
defect :: n. an imperfection, quite often so great that the ... See also: defective defective title
defective :: adj. not being capable of fulfilling its function, ... t. See also: defect defective title
degree of kinship :: n. the level of relationship between two persons r ... there is no will. See also: descent
deficiency judgment :: n. a judgment for an amount not covered by the val ... o: foreclosure judicial foreclosure
defense attorney :: n. 1) the attorney representing the defendant in a ... lso: defendant plaintiff's attorney
defense :: n. 1) a general term for the effort of an attorney ... tiff. See also: affirmative defense
deduction :: n. an expenditure which an income tax payer may su ... dded together, reduce the tax owed.
dedication :: n. the giving of land by a private person or entit ... perty. See also: quiet title action
decision :: n. judgment, decree or determination of findings o ... (court). See also: decree judgment
decide :: v. for a judge, arbitrator, court of appeals or ot ... rding to the law as he/she sees it.
deceit :: n. dishonesty, fraudulent conduct, false statement ... . See also: fraud misrepresentation
deceased :: 1) adj. dead. 2) n. the person who has died, as us ... ore genteel word is the "decedent."
declarant :: n. the person making a statement, usually written ... also: affiant affidavit declaration
declaration :: n. 1) any statement made, particularly in writing. ... blic. See also: affidavit declarant
decriminalization :: n. the repeal or amendment of statutes which made ... gh clinics and other legal sources.
decree :: n. in general, synonymous with judgment. However, ... n's estate, etc. See also: judgment
declaration of trust :: n. the document signed by a trustor (settlor) crea ... also: settlor trust trustee trustor
declaration of mailing :: n. a form stating that a particular document has b ... other party. See also: declaration
domestic relations :: n. a polite term for the legal field of divorce, d ... port and alimony. See also: divorce
domestic violence :: n. the continuing crime and problem of the physica ... ravated assault assault and battery
excusable neglect :: n. a legitimate excuse for the failure of a party ... See also: default default judgment
execute :: v. 1) to finish, complete or perform as required, ... ishment contract executed execution
exculpatory :: adj. applied to evidence which may justify or excu ... t guilty or has no criminal intent.
exchange :: 1) v. to trade or barter property, goods and/or se ... ins tax. See also: delayed exchange
excessive bail :: n. an amount of bail ordered posted by an accused ... ppeal for reduction. See also: bail
executed :: 1) adj. to have been completed. (Example: "it is a ... a death sentence. See also: execute
execution :: n. 1) the act of getting an officer of the court t ... so: death penalty writ of execution
executor :: n. the person appointed to administer the estate o ... sed decedent executrix probate will
executive privilege :: n. a claim by the President or another high offici ... the Watergate scandal (1973-1974).
executive order :: n. a President's or Governor's declaration which h ... the Congress or state legislature.
executive clemency :: n. the power of a President in federal criminal ca ... ernor. See also: commutation pardon
examination :: n. 1) the questioning of a witness by an attorney. ... irect examination testimony witness
ex rel. :: conj. abbreviation for Latin ex relatione, meaning ... . Archie Johnson v. Hardy Products.
estate tax :: n. generally a federal tax on the transfer of a de ... commonly called an inheritance tax.
estate :: n. 1) all that one owns in real estate and other a ... ife estate probate real estate will
esquire :: n. a form of address showing that someone is an at ... or barristers, sheriffs and judges.
espionage :: n. the crime of spying on the federal government a ... n enemy. See also: sedition treason
estoppel :: n. a bar or impediment (obstruction) which preclud ... pel equitable estoppel estop laches
et al. :: n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii meani ... urgatroyd v. Sally Sherman, et al."
ex parte :: (ex par-tay, but popularly, ex party) adj. Latin m ... and place of any ex parte hearing.
evidence :: n. every type of proof legally presented at trial ... material object objection relevant
et ux. :: (et uhks) n. abbreviation for the Latin words et u ... ression a chauvinistic anachronism.
et seq. :: (et seek) n. abbreviation for the Latin phrase et ... Vehicle Code Section 1204, et seq."
exemption :: n. 1) in income taxation, a credit given for each ... l children or is a college student.
exhibit :: n. 1) a document or object (including a photograph ... ncorporated into the main document.
federal courts :: n. the court system which handles civil and crimin ... rans' appeals. See also: bankruptcy
family :: n. 1) husband, wife and children. 2) all blood rel ... ting this economic and social unit.
false pretenses :: n. the crime of knowingly making untrue statements ... orm of theft. See also: fraud theft
false imprisonment :: n. depriving someone of freedom of movement by hol ... for damages. See also: false arrest
Federal Tort Claims Act :: n. a statute (1948) which removed the power of the ... diction to federal district courts.
fee :: n. 1) absolute title in land, from old French, fie ... See also: attorney's fee fee simple
felony :: n. 1) a crime sufficiently serious to be punishabl ... ion. See also: misdemeanor sentence
felonious :: adj. referring to an act done with criminal intent ... is an attack meant to do real harm.
fee tail :: n. an old feudal expression for a title to real pr ... rest only. See also: fee fee simple
fee simple :: n. absolute title to land, free of any other claim ... e:" or similar words. See also: fee
fair market value :: n. the amount for which property would sell on the ... so: appraise appraiser market value
fair comment :: n. a statement of opinion (no matter how ludicrous ... amation libel public figure slander
extinguishment :: n. the cancellation or destruction of a right, qui ... urther money or performance is due.
express contract :: n. a contract in which all elements are specifical ... e circumstances. See also: contract
expert witness :: n. a person who is a specialist in a subject, ofte ... sitions. See also: expert testimony
expense :: n. in business accounting and business taxation, a ... ment. See also: capital expenditure
extraordinary fees :: n. attorneys' fees claimed, usually in the adminis ... n. See also: attorney's fee probate
extreme cruelty :: n. an archaic requirement to show infliction of ph ... ring the suffering spouse (victim).
failure of consideration :: n. not delivering goods or services when promised ... n. See also: consideration contract
fact finder (finder of fact) :: n. in a trial of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution ... n facts. See also: question of fact
fact :: n. an actual thing or happening, which must be pro ... dge if he/she sits without a jury).
eyewitness :: n. a person who has actually seen an event and can ... event and can so testify in court.
escrow instructions :: n. the written instructions by buyer and seller of ... ir agents. See also: closing escrow
escrow agent :: n. a person or entity holding documents and funds ... on local practice. See also: escrow
easement :: n. the right to use the real property of another f ... rstandings at the time of creation.
earnest payment :: n. a deposit paid to demonstrate commitment and to ... (liquidated) or committed damages.
dying declaration :: n. the statement of a mortally injured person who ... as no reason not to tell the truth.
duty of care :: n. a requirement that a person act toward others a ... e also: negligence standard of care
EIR :: n. popular acronym for environmental impact report ... e also: environmental impact report
ejusdem generis :: (eh-youse-dem generous) v adj. Latin for "of the s ... t was of land-based transportation.
element :: n. 1) an essential requirement to a cause of actio ... of action crime general plan zoning
election under the will :: n. in those states which have statutes which give ... arries) left to her under his will.
election of remedies :: n. an outmoded requirement that if a plaintiff (pa ... dence has not been fully presented.
elder law :: n. a specialty in legal practice, covering estate ... t field. (definition revised: 9/02)
duty :: n. 1) a legal obligation, the breach of which can ... on imports. See also: duty of care
duress :: n. the use of force, false imprisonment or threats ... pardoned by President Jimmy Carter.
dower :: n. an old English common law right of a widow to o ... t and distribution widow's election
double taxation :: n. taxation of the same property for the same purp ... it is not discriminatory or unfair.
double jeopardy :: n. placing someone on trial a second time for an o ... that occurred thirty years earlier.
dominant estate :: n. in real estate law, the property retained when ... See also: easement servient estate
dowry :: n. from the days when a groom expected to profit f ... sts in the Civil Code of Louisiana.
draft :: 1) n. a bill of exchange or check in which one par ... s. See also: bill of exchange check
due care :: n. the conduct that a reasonable man or woman will ... "reasonable" man or woman would do.
due :: n. and adj. owed as of a specific date. A popular ... ecessarily mean that a debt is due.
driving under the influence (DUI) :: n. commonly called "drunk driving," it refers to o ... (DWI), drunk driving, or a "deuce".
draw :: v. 1) to prepare any document. 2) specifically to ... signed a bill of exchange or check.
emancipation :: n. freeing a minor child from the control of paren ... vorced parent to pay child support.
emblements :: n. crops to which a tenant who cultivated the land ... ome the property of his/her estate.
equal protection of the law :: n. the right of all persons to have the same acces ... laws." See also: due process of law
environmental law :: n. a body of state and federal statutes intended t ... imental effects on the environment.
environmental impact report :: n. a study of all the factors which a land develop ... See also: EIR negative declaration
enter a judgment :: v. to officially record a judgment on the "judgmen ... ounced. See also: entry of judgment
equitable :: adj. 1) just, based on fairness and not legal tech ... es or give relief. See also: equity
equitable estoppel :: n. where a court will not grant a judgment or othe ... also: clean hands doctrine estoppel
escrow :: 1) n. a form of account held by an "escrow agent" ... w the deal." See also: escrow agent
escalator clause :: n. a provision in a lease or other agreement in wh ... instead of inflation. See also: cap
error :: n. a mistake by a judge in procedure or in substan ... or. See also: harmless error remand
equity :: n. 1) a venerable group of rights and procedures t ... ry enjoin equitable injunction writ
enjoin :: v. for a court to order that someone either do a s ... so: injunction temporary injunction
endorsement :: (indorsement)n. 1) the act of the owner or payee s ... te. See also: negotiable instrument
emotional distress :: n. an increasingly popular basis for a claim of da ... ar value upon it. See also: damages
emolument :: n. salary, wages and benefits paid for employment ... d for employment or an office held.
eminent domain :: n. the power of a governmental entity (federal, st ... ngs. See also: condemn condemnation
emergency :: n. a sudden, unforeseen happening which requires a ... r to protect lives and/or property.
employee :: n. a person who is hired for a wage, salary, fee o ... ondeat superior scope of employment
en banc :: (on bonk) French for "in the bench," it signifies ... he case and agreed to by the court.
endorse (indorse) :: v. 1) to sign one's name to the back of a check, b ... or candidate. See also: endorsement
encumbrance :: (incumbrance)n. a general term for any claim or li ... and must be paid for at some point.
encroach :: v. to build a structure which is in whole or in pa ... wn property. See also: encroachment
enclosure :: (inclosure)n. land bounded by a fence, wall, hedge ... oundaries and cause legal problems.
juror :: n. any person who actually serves on a jury. Lists ... : Grand Jury jury jury panel venire