Dictionary of Law

jury :: legal definition

Jury - n. one of the remarkable innovations of the English common law (from the Angles and Saxons, but also employed in Normandy prior to the Norman Conquest in 1066), it is a group of citizens called to hear a trial of a criminal prosecution or a lawsuit, decide the factual questions of guilt or innocence or determine the prevailing party (winner) in a lawsuit and the amount to be paid, if any, by the loser. Once selected, the jury is sworn to give an honest and fair decision. The legal questions are determined by the judge presiding at the trial, who explains those issues to the members of the jury (jurors) in "jury instructions." The common number of jurors is 12 (dating back a thousand years), but some states allow a smaller number (six or eight) if the parties agree. For a plaintiff (the party suing) to win a lawsuit with a jury, three-quarters of the jurors must favor the claim. Guilt or innocence in a criminal trial requires a unanimous decision of the jury, except two states (Oregon and Louisiana) allow a conviction with 10 of 12 jurors. Juries have greatly changed in recent decades, as the term "impartial jury" in the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution requires that the pool of jurors must include all races, ethnic groups and women as well as men in percentages relative to the general population. Any failure to achieve that balance or systematic challenges to those of the same ethnicity of the accused, may result in a claim on appeal that the jury was not fair-in popular jargon, not "a jury of one's peers." This does not mean that a Samoan male must be tried by other Samoan males, but it does mean that the potential jurors must come from a balanced group. Members of the jury are supposed to be free of bias, have no specific knowledge of the case and have no connection with any of the parties or witnesses. Questions are asked by the judge and attorneys (called "voir dire") during jury selection to weed out those whom they may challenge on those grounds (challenge for cause). Some potential jurors are challenged (peremptory challenge) because the attorney for one side or the other feels there is some hidden bias. In well-financed cases this has led to the hiring of jury "specialists" and psychologists by attorneys to aid in jury selection. In a high-profile criminal case in which the jury might be influenced by public comment or media coverage during trial, the court may order the jury be sequestered (kept in a hotel away from family, friends, radio, television and newspapers.)

See also: challenge for cause juror jury panel jury trial peremptory challenge sequester venire voir dire and Related Law Terms ↓

Related Law Terms

abortion :: n. the termination of pregnancy by various means, ... ed abortion continue in the future.
abuse of discretion :: n. a polite way of saying a trial judge has made s ... partner's realistic ability to pay.
acknowledgment :: n. the section at the end of a document where a no ... me leases and various other papers.
acquit :: v. what a jury or judge sitting without a jury doe ... ndant not guilty. See also: verdict
action :: n. a lawsuit in which one party (or parties) sues ... . See also: cause of action lawsuit
actionable :: adj. when enough facts or circumstances exist to m ... ction lawsuit malicious prosecution
adjuster :: n. an employee (usually a non-lawyer) of an insura ... e company in approving settlements.
administrator :: n. the person appointed by the court to handle the ... e also: administer executor probate
admissible evidence :: n. evidence which the trial judge finds is useful ... olving violence. See also: evidence
adoption :: n. the taking of a child into one's family, creati ... the child are met. See also: adopt
adverse witness :: n. a witness in a trial who is found by the judge ... r the opposition. See also: witness
amend :: v. to alter or change by adding, subtracting, or s ... mended pleading statute stipulation
antitrust laws :: n. acts adopted by Congress to outlaw or restrict ... so: price fixing restraint of trade
appeal :: 1) v. to ask a higher court to reverse the decisio ... ng, as in "he has filed an appeal."
appearance :: n. the act of a party or an attorney showing up in ... neral appearance special appearance
approach the bench :: v. an attorney's movement from the counsel table t ... ake a recess to go to the restroom.
arbitration :: n. a mini-trial, which may be for a lawsuit ready ... tance of the arbitrator's decision.
arbitrator :: n. one who conducts an arbitration, and serves as ... he other two. See also: arbitration
articles of incorporation :: n. the basic charter of a corporation which spells ... year's taxes. See also: corporation
attachment :: n. the seizing of money or property prior to getti ... bond. See also: writ of attachment
attempt :: v. and n. to actually try to commit a crime and ha ... felt he tried but did not succeed.
attorney :: n. 1) an agent or someone authorized to act for an ... ialize. See also: court reciprocity
Attorney General :: n. in each state and the federal government the hi ... izenry. See also: Solicitor General
attorney of record :: n. the attorney who has appeared in court and/or s ... eve have long since been completed.
attorney-client privilege :: n. the requirement that an attorney may not reveal ... ivileged communication work product
attorney's fee :: n. the payment for legal services. It can take sev ... ees in the particular type of case.
attorney's work product :: n. written materials, charts, notes of conversatio ... ivileged communication work product
bankruptcy :: n. a federal system of statutes and courts which p ... y proceedings trustee in bankruptcy
bar :: 1) n. collectively all attorneys, as "the bar," wh ... a room, building, or real property.
bar examination :: n. the examination given in each state by either t ... n that district. See also: attorney
bias :: n. the predisposition of a judge, arbitrator, pros ... ire. See also: hometowned voir dire
bifurcate :: v. the order or ruling of a judge that one issue i ... is necessary. See also: bifurcation
Bill of Rights :: n. the first ten amendments to the federal Constit ... ved to the states or to the people.
brief :: 1) n. a written legal argument, usually in a forma ... another person. See also: precedent
burglary :: n. the crime of breaking and entering into a struc ... le. See also: breaking and entering
calendar :: 1) n. the list of cases to be called for trial bef ... clerk of the court calendars cases.
caption :: n. the first section of any written legal pleading ... to the exact format of the caption.
carrier :: n. in general, any person or business which transp ... lso: common carrier private carrier
case of first impression :: n. a case in which a question of interpretation of ... rts may be examined as a guideline.
case system :: n. the method of studying law generally used in Am ... Langdell and soon became standard.
challenge :: n. the right of each attorney in a jury trial to r ... ess. See also: peremptory challenge
challenge for cause :: n. a request that a prospective juror be dismissed ... remptory challenge venire voir dire
character witness :: n. a person who testifies in a trial on behalf of ... ases and civil cases such as fraud.
charge :: n. 1) in a criminal case, the specific statement o ... trial judge. 3) a fee for services.
child custody :: n. a court's determination of which parent, relati ... pport custody divorce joint custody
circumstantial evidence :: n. evidence in a trial which is not directly from ... circumstantial. See also: evidence
citation :: n. 1) a notice to appear in court due to the proba ... se is not in point." See also: cite
civil :: adj. 1) that part of the law that encompasses busi ... also: civil liberties civil rights
civil calendar :: n. the list of lawsuits (cases) that are approachi ... y sent to trial. See also: calendar
clerk :: n. 1) an official or employee who handles the busi ... stocking shelves, or counter sales.
comity :: n. when one court defers to the jurisdiction of an ... of cases to which comity may apply.
commercial frustration :: n. an unforeseen uncontrollable event which occurs ... rustration of purpose impossibility
common law :: n. the traditional unwritten law of England, based ... plied without reference to statute.
community property :: n. property and profits received by a husband and ... and distribution separate property
commutation :: n. the act of reducing a criminal sentence resulti ... See also: executive clemency pardon
comparative negligence :: n. a rule of law applied in accident cases to dete ... utory negligence damages negligence
complaint :: n. the first document filed with the court (actual ... g prayer service of process summons
conclusion :: n. 1) in general, the end. 2) in a trial, when all ... onclusion of fact conclusion of law
conflict of law :: n. a situation in which both state and federal law ... y arose. See also: forum preemption
consent decree :: n. an order of a judge based upon an agreement, al ... he same. See also: consent judgment
conservator :: n. a guardian and protector appointed by a judge t ... ies. See also: conservatee guardian
constitution :: n. the fundamental, underlying document which esta ... ts common law constitutional rights
constitutional rights :: n. rights given or reserved to the people by the U ... e also: Bill of Rights constitution
consumer protection laws :: n. almost all states and the federal government ha ... rranty product liability securities
contempt of court :: n. there are essentially two types of contempt: a) ... roduce evidence. See also: sanction
contingent fee :: n. a fee to a lawyer which will be due and payable ... epend on the outcome are unethical.
continuing objection :: n. an objection to certain questions or testimony ... ional distress. See also: objection
contract :: 1) n. an agreement with specific terms between two ... n oral contract unilateral contract
cooperative housing :: n. an arrangement in which an association or corpo ... common area condominium cooperative
copartner :: n. one who is a member of a partnership. The prefi ... hip." See also: partner partnership
corporation :: n. an organization formed with state governmental ... ation public corporation securities
count :: n. each separate statement in a complaint which st ... also: cause of action common counts
counterclaim :: n. a retaliatory claim by a defendant against a pl ... d. See also: answer cross-complaint
court :: n. 1) the judge, as in "The court rules in favor o ... cost and wait of full court trials.
court costs :: n. fees for expenses that the courts pass on to at ... ee also: cost bill prevailing party
criminal attorney :: n. a popular term for an attorney who specializes ... . See also: crime felon misdemeanor
criminal calendar :: n. the list of criminal cases to be called in cour ... e plea preliminary hearing sentence
cross-complaint :: n. after a complaint has been filed against a defe ... g prayer service of process summons
cross-examination :: n. the opportunity for the attorney (or an unrepre ... examination testimony trial witness
damages :: n. the amount of money which a plaintiff (the pers ... liquidated damages special damages
de novo :: adj. Latin for "anew," which means starting over, ... n, de novo. See also: trial de novo
declaratory judgment :: n. a judgment of a court which determines the righ ... ys it. See also: declaratory relief
deed :: 1) n. the written document which transfers title ( ... veyance deed of trust warranty deed
defense attorney :: n. 1) the attorney representing the defendant in a ... lso: defendant plaintiff's attorney
demurrer :: n. (dee-muhr-ur) a written response to a complaint ... demurrer. See also: motion pleading
deposition :: n. the taking and recording of testimony of a witn ... See also: deponent depose discovery
directed verdict :: n. a verdict by a jury based on the specific direc ... element judgment jury trial verdict
disbar :: v. to remove an attorney from the list of practici ... legal ethics. (See moral turpitude
discovery :: n. the entire efforts of a party to a lawsuit and ... ee also: deposition interrogatories
disinherit :: v. to intentionally take actions to guarantee that ... rorem clause pretermitted heir will
dismiss :: v. the ruling by a judge that all or a portion (on ... nst that party. See also: dismissal
dismissal :: n. 1) the act of voluntarily terminating a crimina ... f the settlement. See also: dismiss
District Attorney (D.A.) :: n. an elected official of a county or a designated ... dent and serve at his/her pleasure.
divorce :: 1) n. the termination of a marriage by legal actio ... y separate property spousal support
domicile :: n. the place where a person has his/her permanent ... where its headquarters is located.
double jeopardy :: n. placing someone on trial a second time for an o ... that occurred thirty years earlier.
eminent domain :: n. the power of a governmental entity (federal, st ... ngs. See also: condemn condemnation
entrapment :: n. in criminal law, the act of law enforcement off ... e drugs if not pressed by the narc?
equal protection of the law :: n. the right of all persons to have the same acces ... laws." See also: due process of law
equity :: n. 1) a venerable group of rights and procedures t ... ry enjoin equitable injunction writ
evidence :: n. every type of proof legally presented at trial ... material object objection relevant
ex parte :: (ex par-tay, but popularly, ex party) adj. Latin m ... and place of any ex parte hearing.
examination :: n. 1) the questioning of a witness by an attorney. ... irect examination testimony witness
extradition :: n. the surrender by one state or country of a pers ... ty. See also: fugitive from justice
fact :: n. an actual thing or happening, which must be pro ... dge if he/she sits without a jury).
fact finder (finder of fact) :: n. in a trial of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution ... n facts. See also: question of fact
fictitious defendants :: n. when a party suing (plaintiff) is not sure if h ... are not permitted in federal cases.
file :: 1) v. to deposit with the clerk of the court a wri ... rrespondence and notes on the case.
final settlement :: n. an agreement reached by the parties to a lawsui ... rneys present. See also: settlement
finding :: n. the determination of a factual question vital ( ... e case. See also: conclusion of law
foreign corporation :: n. a corporation which is incorporated under the l ... tate or Whoopee's designated agent.
fraud :: n. the intentional use of deceit, a trick or some ... audulent conveyance intrinsic fraud
gag order :: n. a judge's order prohibiting the attorneys and t ... st day in office, January 22, 1993.
grace period :: n. a time stated in a contract in which a late pay ... the contract, i.e. your insurance.
Grand Jury :: n. a jury in each county or federal court district ... arge indictment preliminary hearing
guardian :: n. a person who has been appointed by a judge to t ... torship. See also: conservator ward
habeas corpus :: (hay-bee-us core-puss) n. Latin for "you have the ... nality of a state court conviction.
harassment :: (either harris-meant or huh-rass-meant) n. the act ... See also: harass sexual harassment
harmless error :: n. an error by a judge in the conduct of a trial w ... ar to be harmless." See also: error
hearing :: n. any proceeding before a judge or other magistra ... e hearing preliminary hearing trial
hearsay rule :: n. the basic rule that testimony or documents whic ... interest dying declaration hearsay
hostile witness :: n. technically an "adverse witness" in a trial who ... so: adverse witness leading witness
hung jury :: n. slang for a hopelessly deadlocked jury in a cri ... also: dismissal jury mistrial trial
impaneling :: n. the act of selecting a jury from the list of po ... e juror jury panel venire voir dire
implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing :: n. a general assumption of the law of contracts, t ... -long employment. See also: implied
in personam :: adj. (in purr-soh-nam) from Latin for "directed to ... here. See also: in rem jurisdiction
in propria persona :: adj. from Latin "for one's self," acting on one's ... client and an ass for an attorney."
in terrorem clause :: (in tehr-roar-em)n. from Latin for "in fear," a pr ... e gift. See also: will will contest
incorporate :: v. 1) to obtain an official charter or articles of ... te by reference incorporation stock
indictment :: n. a charge of a felony (serious crime) voted by a ... ictable offense preliminary hearing
information :: n. an accusation or criminal charge brought by the ... Jury indictment preliminary hearing
injunction :: n. a writ (order) issued by a court ordering someo ... t. See also: injunctive relief writ
innocent :: adj. without guilt (not guilty). Usually the plea ... also: arraignment plea plea bargain
insanity :: n. mental illness of such a severe nature that a p ... M'Naughten rule temporary insanity
inspection of documents :: n. the right to examine and copy the opposing part ... evidence subpena duces tecum trial
insufficient evidence :: n. a finding (decision) by a trial judge or an app ... l court. See also: evidence finding
insurance :: n. a contract (insurance policy) in which the insu ... t clause Workers' Compensation Acts
interest :: n. 1) any and all, partial or total right to prope ... nal property real property standing
interpleader :: n. the procedure when two parties are involved in ... e claimants fight over it in court.
interrogatories :: n. a set of written questions to a party to a laws ... ing. See also: deposition discovery
intervene :: v. to obtain the court's permission to enter into ... ntion joinder multiplicity of suits
intervention :: n. the procedure under which a third party may joi ... rvene joinder multiplicity of suits
irrelevant :: adj. not important, pertinent, or germane to the m ... ce immaterial incompetent objection
issue :: 1) n. a person's children or other lineal descenda ... the body incorporation share stock
joinder :: n. the joining together of several lawsuits or sev ... er misjoinder multiplicity of suits
joinder of issue :: n. that point in a lawsuit when the defendant has ... matters are to be decided by trial.
joint and several :: adj. referring to a debt or a judgment for neglige ... ution contributory negligence joint
judge :: 1) n. an official with the authority and responsib ... ice justice of the peace magistrate
judgment notwithstanding the verdict :: (N.O.V.) n. reversal of a jury's verdict by the tr ... veredicto. See also: N.O.V. verdict
jurisdiction :: n. the authority given by law to a court to try ca ... Superior Court Supreme Court venue
juror :: n. any person who actually serves on a jury. Lists ... : Grand Jury jury jury panel venire
jury fees :: n. the rather minimal amount paid each day to juro ... ees as a court cost. See also: jury
jury of one's peers :: n. a guaranteed right of criminal defendants, in w ... y African Americans. See also: jury
jury panel :: n. the list from which jurors for a particular tri ... may be chosen. See also: juror jury
jury selection :: n. the means by which a jury is chosen, with a pan ... y panel peremptory challenge venire
jury trial :: n. a trial of a lawsuit or criminal prosecution in ... the final judgment. See also: jury
justice :: n. 1) fairness. 2) moral rightness. 3) a scheme or ... e appellate courts. See also: court
justice of the peace :: (JP) n. a judge who handles minor legal matters su ... ersons to qualify by taking a test.
last clear chance :: n. a rule of law in determining responsibility for ... contributory negligence negligence
law :: n. 1) any system of regulations to govern the cond ... um maritime law natural law statute
law book :: n. any of numerous volumes dealing with law, inclu ... : common law law Shepardize statute
lawsuit :: n. a common term for a legal action by one person ... See also: case cause of action suit
leading :: 1) v. short for "leading the witness," in which th ... tness leading the witness objection
leading question :: n. a question asked of a witness by an attorney du ... e also: cross-examination objection
libel :: 1) n. to publish in print (including pictures), wr ... libel per se public figure slander
limited partnership :: n. a special type of partnership which is very com ... mited liability partner partnership
lis pendens :: (lease pen-dense) n. Latin for "a suit pending," a ... ob can be penalized by court order.
living will :: n. also called "a durable power of attorney," it i ... upport. See also: power of attorney
long cause :: n. a lawsuit in which it is estimated that a trial ... dar call court calendar short cause
long-arm statute :: n. law which gives a local state court jurisdictio ... rt jurisdiction over the defendant.
magistrate :: n. 1) a generic term for any judge of a court, or ... ce of the peace preliminary hearing
malpractice :: n. An act or continuing conduct of a professional ... eed. See also: errors and omissions
mandamus :: (man-dame-us) n. Latin for "we order," a writ (mor ... mandamus. See also: writ of mandate
mandate :: n. 1) any mandatory order or requirement under sta ... See also: mandamus writ of mandate
marriage :: n. the joining of a male and female in matrimony b ... of time without legal formalities.
maxims :: n. a collection of legal truisms which are used as ... e and the ordinary habits of life."
mediation :: n. the attempt to settle a legal dispute through a ... a settlement. See also: arbitration
Miranda warning :: n. the requirement, also called the Miranda rule, ... me such a suspect? See also: rights
mistrial :: n. the termination of a trial before its normal co ... from the beginning. See also: trial
moral certainty :: n. in a criminal trial, the reasonable belief (but ... : beyond a reasonable doubt verdict
mortgage :: n. a document in which the owner pledges his/her/i ... losure notice of default trust deed
motion :: n. a formal request made to a judge for an order o ... g, an oral motion may be permitted.
motion for a new trial :: n. a request made by the loser for the case to be ... hstanding the verdict motion N.O.V.
motion for a summary judgment :: n. a written request for a judgment in the moving ... strict procedures. See also: motion
motion for dismissal :: (non-suit) n. application by a defendant in a laws ... otion for nonsuit. See also: motion
motion to strike :: n. a request for a judge's order to eliminate all ... be unrung." See also: motion strike
municipal court :: n. a lower court which usually tries criminal misd ... nd/or small claims. See also: court
N.O.V. :: adj. shorthand acronym of Latin for non obstante v ... notwithstanding the verdict verdic
necessary party :: n. a person or entity whose interests will be affe ... o: indispensable party proper party
negligence :: n. failure to exercise the care toward others whic ... gence per se res ipsa loquitur tort
no contest :: n. in criminal law, a defendant's plea in court th ... : nolo contendere plea plea bargain
no fault insurance :: n: a type of automobile insurance required of car ... ling lawsuits. See also: negligence
nolle prosequi :: (no-lay pro-say-kwee) n. Latin for "we shall no lo ... nocent and declared nolle prosequi.
nominal damages :: n. a small amount of money awarded to a plaintiff ... had been damaged. See also: damages
non-suit :: n. a ruling by the judge in a lawsuit either when ... the defendant. See also: dismissal
not guilty :: n. 1) plea of a person who claims not to have comm ... t guilty by reason of insanity plea
not guilty by reason of insanity :: n. plea in court of a person charged with a crime ... fense not guilty temporary insanity
notary public :: n. a person authorized by the state in which the p ... he state which appoints the notary.
notice :: n. 1) information, usually in writing in all legal ... Thirty-day notice three-day notice
object :: 1) v. to ask the court not to allow a particular q ... he contract..." See also: objection
objection :: n. a lawyer's protest about the legal propriety of ... ng question object overrule sustain
offer of proof :: n. an explanation made by an attorney to a judge d ... rial irrelevant objection testimony
officer of the court :: n. any person who has an obligation to promote jus ... also: attorney bailiff clerk judge
on the merits :: adj. referring to a judgment, decision or ruling o ... s if this mistake had not occurred.
open court :: n. the conduct of judicial proceedings (trials, he ... which are usually held in chambers.
order to show cause :: n. a judge's written mandate that a party appear i ... vernmental agency. See also: O.S.C.
overrule :: v. 1) to reject an attorney's objection to a quest ... : appellate court objection sustain
paid into court :: adj. referring to money deposited with the clerk o ... differences. See also: interpleader
palimony :: n. a substitute for alimony in cases in which the ... the relationship. See also: alimony
party :: n. 1) one of the participants in a lawsuit or othe ... y real party in interest respondent
party of the first part :: n. reference in a written contract to identify one ... ies another party to the agreement.
peer :: n. an equal. A "jury of one's peers," to which cri ... eria. See also: jury of one's peers
peremptory challenge :: n. the right of the plaintiff and the defendant in ... challenge for cause jury voir dire
petition :: 1) n. a formal written request to a court for an o ... dent. See also: divorce motion writ
plea :: n. 1) in criminal law, the response by an accused ... raignment plead preliminary hearing
plea bargain :: n. in criminal procedure, a negotiation between th ... the ban. See also: cop a plea plea
political question :: n. the determination by a court (particularly the ... ne-vote," as constitutional issues.
power of attorney :: n. a written document signed by a person giving an ... y, as in a real estate transaction.
preliminary hearing :: n. in criminal law, a hearing to determine if a pe ... nment charge Grand Jury information
preponderance of the evidence :: n. the greater weight of the evidence required in ... what subjective. See also: evidence
prevailing party :: n. the winner in a lawsuit. Many contracts, leases ... ed before or after trial has begun.
privileged communication :: n. statements and conversations made under circums ... See also: attorney-client privilege
privileges and immunities :: n. the fundamental rights that people enjoy in fre ... t impinge on constitutional rights.
pro tem :: 1) adj. short for the Latin pro tempore, temporari ... as "Sam Collins is Pro Tem today."
process :: n. in law, the legal means by which a person is re ... service of process subpena summons
promissory note :: n. a written promise by a person (variously called ... lso: interest obligee obligor usury
proof :: n. confirmation of a fact by evidence. In a trial, ... doubt preponderance of the evidence
proper party :: n. a person or entity who has an interest (financi ... lf. See also: necessary party party
property :: n. anything that is owned by a person or entity. P ... rty real property separate property
prosecute :: v. 1) in criminal law, to charge a person with a c ... rney General prosecution prosecutor
prosecution :: n. 1) in criminal law, the government attorney cha ... se). See also: prosecute prosecutor
prosecutor :: n. generic term for the government's attorney in a ... ee also: Attorney General prosecute
prospectus :: n. a detailed statement by a corporation required ... rporation limited partnership stock
prostitution :: n. the profession of performing sexual acts for mo ... so: pander panderer pimp prostitute
public defender :: n. an elected or appointed public official (usuall ... to convicted indigents for appeals.
question of fact :: n. in a lawsuit or criminal prosecution, an issue ... also: finding judge question of law
question of law :: n. an issue arising in a lawsuit or criminal prose ... udge question of fact trier of fact
quiet title action :: n. a lawsuit to establish a party's title to real ... opposition. See also: notice title
quotient verdict :: n. an award of money damages set by a jury in a la ... rial motion for a new trial verdict
rape :: 1) n. the crime of sexual intercourse (with actual ... See also: date rape statutory rape
reasonable doubt :: n. not being sure of a criminal defendant's guilt ... also: preponderance of the evidence
record :: 1) v. (ree-cored) to put a document into the offic ... eeding race to the courthouse trial
recuse :: v. to refuse to be a judge (or for a judge to agre ... to the defendant. See also: recusal
regulations :: n. rules and administrative codes issued by govern ... es usually have similar procedures.
release on one's own recognizance :: v. for a judge to allow a criminal defendant pre-t ... ourtroom slang. See also: bail O.R.
remedy :: n. the means to achieve justice in any matter in w ... gment provisional remedy settlement
reports :: n. the published decisions of appeals courts in al ... ilable in almost all law libraries.
respondent :: n. 1) the party who is required to answer a petiti ... "appellant") in the appeals court.
retainer :: n. the advance payment to an attorney for services ... e stuck with extensive unpaid fees.
review :: n. the judicial consideration of a lower court jud ... ate court reversal reversible error
rogatory letters :: n. a written request by a judge to a judge in anot ... also: deposition testimony witness
sanction :: n. 1) a financial penalty imposed by a judge on a ... ction." See also: contempt of court
satisfaction of judgment :: n. a document signed by a judgment creditor (the p ... ord. See also: abstract of judgment
sealed verdict :: n. the decision of a jury when there is a delay in ... reconvenes. See also: jury verdict
security deposit :: n. a payment required by a landlord from a tenant ... lso: landlord and tenant lease rent
sentence :: 1) n. the punishment given to a person convicted o ... ence restitution suspended sentence
sequester :: v. to keep separate or apart. In so-called "high-p ... of others. See also: sequestration
service by mail :: n. mailing legal pleadings to opposing attorneys o ... attorney by mail. See also: service
service of process :: n. the delivery of copies of legal documents such ... by publication substituted service
settlement :: n. the resolution of a lawsuit (or of a legal disp ... ult in settlement. See also: settle
sheriff :: n. the top law enforcement officer for a county, u ... ." See also: bailiff sheriff's sale
short cause :: n. a lawsuit which is estimated by the parties (us ... l be reset later as a "long cause."
shortening time :: n. an order of the court in response to the motion ... e notice is served within 24 hours.
small claims court :: n. a division of most municipal, city or other low ... od example of a small claims court.
sodomy :: n. anal copulation by a man inserting his penis in ... tiality). See also: bestiality rape
solicitor :: n. an English attorney who may perform all legal s ... s or barristers. See also: attorney
speaking demurrer :: n. an attempt to introduce evidence during a heari ... the operation." See also: demurrer
special appearance :: n. the representation by an attorney of a person i ... anged. See also: general appearance
special circumstances :: n. in criminal cases, particularly homicides, acti ... urant. See also: capital punishment
special prosecutor :: n. an attorney from outside of the government sele ... Robert Bork finally discharged Cox.
specific finding :: n. a decision on a fact made by a jury in its verd ... so forth. See also: special verdict
speedy trial :: n. in criminal prosecutions, the right of a defend ... hurt by the waiver. See also: trial
star chamber proceedings :: n. any judicial or quasi-judicial action, trial or ... ate 1960s. See also: kangaroo court
status conference :: n. a pre-trial meeting of attorneys before a judge ... g a trial date. See also: discovery
statute of limitations :: n. a law which sets the maximum period which one c ... ies. See also: demurrer laches toll
stock certificate :: n. printed document which states the name, incorpo ... . See also: corporation share stock
strike :: 1) v. to remove a statement from the record of the ... ing the business, factory or store.
substitution of attorney :: n. a document in which the party to a lawsuit stat ... t any time. See also: substitute in
summary adjudication of issues :: n. a court order ruling that certain factual issue ... is made. See also: summary judgment
summary judgment :: n. a court order ruling that no factual issues rem ... tion summary adjudication of issues
supra :: (sooh-prah) Latin for "above," in legal briefs and ... d as Guinn v. United States, supra.
sustain :: v. in trial practice, for a judge to agree that an ... /she will "overrule" the objection.
testify :: v. to give oral evidence under oath in answer to q ... deposition evidence testimony trial
testimony :: n. oral evidence given under oath by a witness in ... tion evidence testify trial witness
Thirty-day notice :: n. a notice by a landlord to a tenant on a month-t ... e also: landlord and tenant service
toll :: v. 1) to delay, suspend or hold off the effect of ... bridge or take passage on a ferry.
transcript :: n. the written record of all proceedings, includin ... unless transcription is requested.
trial :: n. the examination of facts and law presided over ... at a hearing held at a later time.
trier of fact :: n. the judge or jury responsible for deciding fact ... r referee may be the trier of fact.
trust :: n. an entity created to hold assets for the benefi ... testamentary trust trustee trustor
variance :: n. 1) an exception to a zoning ordinance, authoriz ... process." See also: dismissal proof
venue :: n. 1) the proper or most convenient location for t ... ion. See also: forum non conveniens
verdict :: n. the decision of a jury after a trial, which mus ... nt quotient verdict special verdict
vexatious litigation :: n. filing a lawsuit with the knowledge that it has ... lous malicious prosecution sanction
voir dire :: (vwahr [with a near-silent "r"] deer) n. from Fren ... t witness jury peremptory challenge
will :: n. a written document which leaves the estate of t ... will and testament probate testator
witness stand :: n. a chair at the end of the judge's bench on the ... estimony clearly. See also: witness
wrongful death :: n. the death of a human being as the result of a w ... ual beneficiaries (family members).

Popular Law Searches

legal definition ministerial act :: n. an act, particularly of a governmental employee ... exercising any individual judgment.
chancery legal definition :: n. a court that can order acts performed. Today ch ... ts in most states. See also: equity
testamentary disposition legal definition :: n. how the terms of a will divide the testator's ( ... named beneficiaries. See also: will
contract of sufferance :: n. a "hold-over" tenancy after a lease has expired ... y tenancy at will unlawful detainer
forthwith legal definition :: adv. a term found in contracts, court orders and s ... mediacy, with no excuses for delay.
forthwith definition legal :: adv. a term found in contracts, court orders and s ... mediacy, with no excuses for delay.
what is to wit in a legal contract :: prep. that is to say. Example: "the passengers in ... tty Bumgartner and Sherry Younger."
mirror wills legal definition :: n. the wills of a husband and wife which are ident ... d each names the other as executor.
clean hands doctrine latin :: n. a rule of law that a person coming to court wit ... ices. See also: affirmative defense
sine qua non only relates to contract law :: (see-nay kwah nahn) prep. Latin for "without which ... qua non of the injury to Playmate.

Other Law Terms - J

J :: n. abbreviation for Judge, as in the Hon. William ... as in the Hon. William B. Boone, J.
Jane Doe :: n. 1) a fictitious name used for a possible female ... lso: fictitious defendants John Doe
jaywalking :: n. walking across a street outside of marked cross ... jury to the jaywalker by a vehicle.
JD :: n. short for Juris Doctor, identifying the holder ... law degree. See also: Juris Doctor
jeopardy :: n. peril, particularly danger of being charged wit ... ar Evers. See also: double jeopardy
jobber :: n. a merchant who buys products (usually in bulk o ... buys and acts for specific clients.
John Doe :: n. 1) a fictitious name used for a possible male d ... lso: fictitious defendants Jane Doe
joinder :: n. the joining together of several lawsuits or sev ... er misjoinder multiplicity of suits
joinder of issue :: n. that point in a lawsuit when the defendant has ... matters are to be decided by trial.
joint :: adj., adv. referring to property, rights or obliga ... ncy joint venture tenancy in common
joint adventure :: n. when two or more people go together on a trip o ... e activity. See also: joint venture
joint and several :: adj. referring to a debt or a judgment for neglige ... ution contributory negligence joint
joint custody :: n. in divorce actions, a decision by the court (of ... em. See also: child custody divorce
joint enterprise :: n. a generic term for an activity of two or more p ... liability joint venture partnership
joint liability :: n. when two or more persons are both responsible f ... See also: joinder joint and several
joint powers agreement :: n. a contract between a city, a county and/or a sp ... istrict or other government entity.
joint tenancy :: n. a crucial relationship in the ownership of real ... ty property tenancy in common title
joint tortfeasors :: n. two or more persons whose negligence in a singl ... : comparative negligence negligence
joint venture :: n. an enterprise entered into by two or more peopl ... s terminated. See also: partnership
Jones Act :: n., adj. a federal law which covers injuries to cr ... ." See also: admiralty maritime law